First Physical Evidence found of Ancient Egyptian Opening of the Mouth Procedure

First Physical Evidence found of Ancient Egyptian Opening of the Mouth Procedure

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Ancient Egyptians took great care to mummify the bodies of high-status people and adorned and entombed them with some of the most beautiful objects ever made. However, in what appears contrary to the careful and delicate steps taken, a new scholarly study provides the first ever physical evidence that mortician-priests would force open the mouths of the deceased with a knife and iron chisel during the mummification process to perform an “opening of the mouth procedure”.

While it has long been known that the ancient Egyptians carried out an opening of the mouth ceremony – a symbolic animation of a statue or mummy by magically opening its mouth so that it could breathe and speak – it has also been suspected, based on historical references, that they carried out a physical procedure on the mouths of the deceased.

A depiction of the opening of the mouth ritual ( Wikimedia Commons )

The new study in the journal The Anatomical Record is the first one to find physical evidence to support what has been written and described in historical texts:

“One learns from the texts of the Ritual of Embalming and the Apis Embalming Ritual that after the surgical treatment and the dehydration, the dead body was again cleaned and anointed before being wrapped,” the authors write. “The jaws had to be forced apart with instruments to wipe out and anoint the oral cavity with oil and resins. For these manipulations, the term 'opening of the mouth procedure' may be used, to distinguish it from the purely symbolic actions of the OMR [opening of the mouth ritual]. This opening of the mouth procedure caused in many cases—and with this we come back to the initial point—fractures and avulsions of front teeth seen frequently in ancient Egyptian mummies.”

The mummification process ( Graphic from The Anatomical Record )

The authors of the study, Roger Seiler and Frank Rühli, both with the Institute of Evolutionary Medicine in Zurich, examined 51 mummies from the Swiss Mummy Project and more than 100 from the Anthropological Institute and Museum. Some of the institute's mummies were collected around 1900 AD, and at that time the usual procedure was to unwrap the mummy and even remove soft tissues from the mouth to do craniological studies. Of the mummies found more recently, the researchers did modern medicine's radiological procedure called computed tomography scans so as not to disturb the wrappings or the head inside. Several of the mummies that Seiler and Rühli examined had mouth trauma.

“Mummies are among the most characteristic objects of the Ancient Egyptian culture and their monuments—shrines, coffins, and funeral masks—among the most beautiful objects created by the Egyptians. The 'making of a mummy' included a long, complex, and ritually protected operation to transform the dead body into an effigy of the eternal Osiris. It ended before the interment with the 'opening of the mouth ritual' (OMR),” Seiler and Rühli wrote in their published paper. “The goal was the animation of the mummy, its transformation to a medium for cultic communication, to make it able to communicate by opening their mouth and eyes. But the whole process of mummification meant also a massive intervention in the physical integrity of the dead person, and often the corpse was dealt with little care. Incidents of post-mortem accidents were high, particularly in the oro-facial region. … Careful examination of the mummies of the Swiss Mummy Project and other cases reported in the literature showed frequent dental pathologies including fractured and totally luxated [dislocated] teeth, which were up to now not sufficiently taken into consideration.”

Opening of the mouth ceremony depicted in Theban Tomb 335 ( Wikimedia Commons )

The authors include an ancient Egyptian text, the Papyrus Vienna from the 2nd century BC, that describes somewhat the embalment of the Apis bull, which resembled embalming of high-status people. In embalming the tongue and mouth of “the god,” a priest “put his hand in his mouth as far as his hand can reach” and laid two cloths on the opening of the throat and two more on his lower jaw then covered the inside of the mouth with a cloth.

A text from 125 to 75 BC on the obverse side of this papyrus states:

… two smr-priests […] open the mouth of the god before the Overseer of the Mystery. The Overseer of the Mystery […] anoints inside the mouth of the god, above and below, as well as the passage of the throat up to the place which his hand shall be able to reach.

The Apis bull was considered a god, as were some of the people mummified, so apparently the rituals and processes of mummification for both the bull and people were similar.

The rituals and procedures concerning the mouth and throat were performed after the brains and insides were removed and the body dehydrated but before the mummy was wrapped.

The entire June 2015 issue of The Anatomical Record, all 26 articles, is devoted to the study of mummies from around the world. It is available free of charge in its entirety at

Featured image: The teeth of a 17th dynasty (circa 1550 BC) mummy had his teeth broken out, probably during the embalming process. This mummy's wrappings were removed in the early 20th century. ( Photo from The Anatomical Record )

By Mark Miller

Ancient never-before-seen viruses discovered locked up in Tibetan glacier

For the past 15,000 years, a glacier on the northwestern Tibetan Plateau of China has hosted a party for some unusual guests: an ensemble of frozen viruses, many of them unknown to modern science.

Scientists recently broke up this party after taking a look at two ice cores from this Tibetan glacier, revealing the existence of 28 never-before-seen virus groups.

Investigating these mysterious viruses could help scientists on two fronts: For one, these stowaways can teach researchers which viruses thrived in different climates and environments over time, the researchers wrote in a paper posted on the bioRxiv database on Jan. 7.

"However, in a worst-case scenario, this ice melt [from climate change] could release pathogens into the environment," the researchers wrote in the study, which has not yet been peer-reviewed. If this happens, it's best to know as much about these viruses as possible, the researchers wrote.

8 of the Strangest Ancient Masks Ever Discovered in the World

A Neolithic spirit mask. Source: Times of Israel

Masks have always been an essential part of different cultures. People have worn them for various purposes such as in rituals, sacred ceremonies, death, while committing a sin, murder, etc. The people of ancient Egypt used to cover the faces of the dead pharaohs with intricate gold masks. Moreover, it is not just Egyptians that used to cover the faces of the dead the Javanese masks of the 10th century were also used for similar purposes.

The Javanese masks were also known as the ‘funerary’ mask.

Here are eight ancient masks that are quite popular and have been used by various cultures in the past:

Death mask of King Tut. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Tutankhamun’s Gold mask, Egypt:

The mask of King Tut is a gold mask of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. King Tut reigned for a limited number of years and passed at the age of 19. His mask was discovered by Howard Carter when he found his burial chamber in 1925. The mask is decorated with semi-precious stones. An ancient spell is inscribed in hieroglyphs on the mask’s shoulders a spell that speaks of death and despair.

Neolithic spirit masks. Source: Israel Times

Neolithic spirit masks:

The Neolithic spirit masks are approximately 9000 years old. They belonged to the people who lived in the Judean desert. Only fifteen masks have been discovered from the area surrounding the southern Judean desert, Israel. The masks share various characteristics of the others found to date. These include a human-size face of soft, carved limestone with large openings for eyes and mouth. The masks were meant to be tied to the face as they have two holes on each side.

Tashtyk death masks. Source:

Tashtyk death masks:

The Tashtyk death masks recreate a look of the people who lived around the Yenesei River. The masks were discovered from the Shestakovo-3 tomb, where the bodies were cremated, leaving only large bones. The remnants of the deceased were put inside dummy bodies made up of some sort of fabric after cremation.

A Javanese gold masks. Source: Pinterest

Javanese gold masks:

The funerary or Javanese gold masks belonged to the people of Indonesia and the Philippines. They were discovered from the ancient burial sites. The gold buried with the body guaranteed status and wealth in the afterlife.

The Mask of Agamemnon. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Mask of Agamemnon:

The mask of Agamemnon is a gold funeral mask discovered from the ancient Greek site of Mycenae. It is believed that the mask belonged to the Mycenaean king Agamemnon, leader of the Achaeans in Homer’s epic of the Trojan War. However, the experts and modern-day archaeologists suggest that the mask dates back to 1600 BC, predating the period of the Trojan War by 400 years.

Napoleon Bonaparte death mask. Source:

Napoleon Bonaparte’s death mask:

During the era of Napoleon Bonaparte, it was mandatory to cast a death mask of a remarkable leader who had recently departed for the afterlife. Hence, a mixture of wax and plaster was poured over Napoleon Bonaparte’s face once he took his last breath. The mask was removed after the form had hardened. Multiple copies were made from the original impression of his face.

The turquoise mask of Aztec. Source:

Xiuhtecuhtli, the Aztec god of fire:

Xiuhtecuhtli was known as the Turquoise lord or the lord of fire in Aztec mythology. His masks were built around 1400 – 1521 CE. He was also known as the lord of volcanoes, the representation of life after death. Moreover, Xiuhtecuhtli is usually portrayed as a young deity. However, he was considered as the father of the Gods, who dwelled in the turquoise ring in the centre of the earth.

Queen Sitdjehuti of Egypt. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The mask of Sitdjehuti, the queen consort of King Djehuti:

Sitdjehuti was a princess and queen of the 17th dynasty of Egypt. She married her brother, Seqenenre Tao, to keep her dynasty undiluted and pure. Moreover, she was the daughter of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose and Queen Tetisheri. Her remnants were discovered in 1820, along with her coffin, golden mask, and a heart scarab.

Legendary sunken city gives up more astonishing archaeological treasures

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Ever since the legendary city of Heracleion was found by archaeologists who were diving for “French warships,” it’s been giving up its secrets of the ancient treasures it holds. And now, the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities announced that its found ancient treasures inside a newly discovered portion of the submerged city: Docks, boats, and a temple.

Named after Hercules, the ancient city of Heracleion was once thought to be just a myth, much like the legendary city of Atlantis. When it was originally discovered in 2000 in what’s known today as the Bay of Aboukir, the divers initially found a smallish Greek temple and the main temple. The ruins date back to about the 8th century B.C.E., while coins and ancient columns found date to “between 283 and 246” B.C.E. when King Ptolemy II reigned.

Image via Frank Goddio

According to the report, the new team of divers found new ports that:

“Effectively extends their map of the ancient sunken city [of ‘by about two-thirds of a mile’ and they have also added to their mapping of Canopus, a second submerged city close to Heracleion. What’s more, one of the scores of ancient ships at the site from the fourth century BC was found to contain ‘crockery, coins and jewelry in one now fully-excavated vessel.'”

Image via YouTube (see below)

Originally known as Thonis to Egyptians, a catastrophe made the city “slide into the sea.” The city sat submerged under at least 150 feet of water for about 1,200 years at what was known as the mouth of the River Nile’s delta, where a river opens into the sea.

Legend has it that Cleopatra was inaugurated there and that Hercules visited the city.

Researchers believe that the catastrophe happened as a result of a couple of factors, the first being called liquefaction, which is a weird effect that makes solid ground essentially turn into a liquid. The second factor was likely flooding of the city – mixed with its weight was too much on the clay, and it sank after the flood.

Image via Frank Goddio

One of the initial dives after the city was discovered found various Egyptian treasures in the main temple called Amun-Gerb. They included:

“Dozens of sarcophagi, giant statues of pharaohs, a sphinx and hundreds of god and goddess statues, 6 ancient ships, 700 anchors and gold coins and weights made from bronze and stone.”

In the city of Canopus, the divers found jewelry such as earrings and rings that date to between 305 and 30 B.C.E., which lands between the Ptolemaic dynasty and Byzantine Empire.

Image via Egyptian Antiquities Authority

According to Frank Goddio, the director of the European Institute for Underwater Archaeology, he and his team found that the city was a large hub for international trading, which helped the city and its inhabitants prosper. He wrote that their excavations have found other treasures such as bronze statuettes, and that they found a network of canals that connected to a “grand canal” north of “the temple to Herakles” that “flowed through the city from east to west and connected the port basins with a late to the west.”

Image via Frank Goddio

One of the really interesting things about the divers initially finding the city is that before they did, there was nothing to indicate it ever existed, or that people even knew it did, except for a few ancient texts from a 5th century B.C.E. Greek historian, as well as inscriptions other archaeologist teams found on land. Reportedly Herodotus, the historian, spoke of Helen and her lover visiting Heracleion, among other details.

If archaeologists found a legendary city like Heracleion, one which no one really knew about until they did find it, it makes you wonder if they’ll find Atlantis if they look hard enough.

See more from Ancient Architects below:

First Physical Evidence found of Ancient Egyptian Opening of the Mouth Procedure - History

by Estelle Nora Harwit Amrani

with Enki’s Assistance

from Vibrani Website
January, 1999

up-dated August 3, 2000

Winged Disk Symbol for Nibiru and The Anunnaki

For those of you who are Sitchin fans, you may notice some similarities between his information and mine. I respect the exhaustive research he has done, and the great scholar that he is. He contributed to opening up our planet’s memory of the Anunnaki. Scholastic and intellectual viewpoints and written documents are of value and add one part to understanding who we are. However, I feel we must not rule out our holographic, multidimensional viewpoints as being of equal value.

This is what I present to you.

I don’t agree with all of Sitchin’s data, and I include a lot that he does not. There have been many viewpoints from many different writers about the Anunnaki. Most of my information comes from personal memories and channeled information. And, similarities will also exist between certain channels because deeper truth is consistent those who can channel or tap into universal energies on their own will also receive many parallels to this story. [My personal memories and more about me and Enki can be found in my article Nakmemories .]

I have something I’d like to add here - the Anunnaki had bases around the world, but primarily in the Middle East - Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Iraq - and in India and South Africa. There are many artifacts that still exist in Iraq but are not allowed to be seen, and the West has not had much access at all to these artifacts of the Anunnaki. It is my understanding that Saddam Hussein has hoarded many of these and kept many in private vaults under the ground. It is my hope that governments will encourage the Iraqi people who have access to these artifacts to bring them out and share them with the world.

Much still lies beneath the sands and it would be fantastic for humanity to be able to uncover the past in this region. Ur, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, was the birthplace of humanity in modern times on Plan-ET Earth, the Garden of Eden, and everyone is entitled to have safe access to it. Therein lies many eophysical keys to remembering who we all are. (Please see the addendum to this article for a more complete explanation of how the war with Iraq is related to the Anunnaki, added April, 2003.)

Special update on May 1, 2003: The Tomb of Gilgamesh is thought to have been found in Iraq. The story can be read here and please note the comments on the canals, which Enki built.

Humans were not only created by G-d, but are also genetically, symbolically and literally, related to a few off-planet civilizations one particularly known on Earth as the Anunnaki.

[If you believe humans evolved solely from apes, why, then, are there still apes?]

Our story, (a term which replaces "history", because "our story" belongs to all of us), of human life on Earth is often told as creation myths, the planets in the heavens.

But these myths were based on something - - - fact. This is why, around the world, we see the same tales of how one ’god’ was instrumental in assisting humanity during creation, the great flood, bringing knowledge to humanity. All cultures have their own creation stories of the ’gods and goddesses,’ beings on ships that came from the skies (often wearing masks or strange clothing and possessed some amazing abilities), giants (Anakim), war epochs between two sides of a family, and all over the Earth we also share very similar artwork, music and technology, largely based on extraterrestrial activity and intervention. From Lemuria to Atlantis to Sumeria to Egypt . These portray the story of our cosmos, the constellations, sun and moon, and put into human and "god" forms.

Personally, I feel that much of what we attribute to the Anunnaki was not their own doing. For instance, I think that the Anunnaki were limited in their abilities, yet were given credit for doing things that were done by other alien species. But, as human beings saw the Anunnaki as gods and goddesses, they naturally transferred credit to the Annunaki, because they were more tangible, something they could see, make an image of, and so forth. In this article you will see some comparisons between B’raisheet (Genesis) and the written history the Anunnaki.

Although this may not be for everybody (because some people simply aren’t interested or curious about any of this stuff), why could it be of value to examine our past in this particular way, with our connections to extraterrestrials, as well as with our past lifetimes? Because when we re-member more of who we are, why we continue to repeat patterns without understanding them, then we can be more of our whole selves in a way that is free from old baggage. We can have clear knowledge of ourselves, accept ourselves, heal what needs healing, and create what we want to have for our future.

Or, to quote from a popular TV show ("Kung Fu: The Legend Continues"):

"The seeds of destiny are nurtured by our roots in the past."

If you want to know what the Anunnaki looked like, one easy way is to see the crop circle from 2001 called the first Chilbolton Face in Hampshire .

Mention the name Anunnaki to some people and deep within them something stirs a memory of Earth and Mars - and often there is anger, fear, pain, and confusion about the Anunnaki. People seem to like to blame them for all of Earth’s problems. Some people remember being part of their family, for better or worse.

And yet others don’t want to hear anything about them because it dredges up feelings they’d rather avoid or deny. I even hear stories from people who think that the Anunnaki are vicious reptilians who have been battling for control over the Earth for the last half a million years, and they call all of the shots while we sit here like helpless pawns. I feel that A LOT of what we’ve learned about the Anunnaki was via bad press due to incorrect translations and the need to have a scapegoat. Do I agree with everything the Anunnaki did, or they way in which they did things? No.

They had good sides and also some really awful sides. There were different Anunnaki factions, and there were aliens who gave the impression they were Anunnakis. This article presents some of each. What they did was their responsibility and I’m not about to excuse or even attempt the impossible, which would be to vindicate their actions.

The Anunnaki are archetypal, symbolic, and mythic, too. So, we may each feel a certain personal identification with one or more of them, which is a very interesting phenomenon to investigate. Because people feel a reaction to the Anunnaki, it is a HUGE key that our personal feelings and memories (emotional and cellular) about the Anunnaki still influence us today. In other words, these archetypes are within ourselves. Joseph Campbell stated that, "myths are clues to the spiritual potentialities of the human life." We seek the experience, the rapture of life, and myths help us as guides through life, show us what we are capable of, and mirroring what we feel. We can use the mythology of the Anunnaki as a way to understand and heal ourselves.

From Enki and Enlil, Cain and Abel, Jacob and Esau, Joseph and his brothers, Moses and Ramses, Hatshepsut and Tuthmose, Akhenaten’s one god versus the many deities Inanna (with her insatiable greed for power and adoration who still failed to realize that without her possessions she was nothing) Jehovah and Adoni Sin (a.k.a. Nanna, Allah) the war over who controls Israel.

We have seen brother go against brother (the main theme), religions and governments against others, men against women and women against men up into current times. I feel it’s time to get over the past (not necessarily forget it), and heal a lot. It is my hope that through such understanding of who we are, we can resolve ancient battles between nations and heal bitterness and hurts that have held us back from fully enjoying our lives and being the creators that we are RIGHT NOW. It’s time to remember who the false gods were and who the real G-d is. the One that is in charge of it all, that is within us the one that transcends definition.

The return of love/G-d (and the G-d as the common source within us all that is synchronicity, wisdom - love and light) is not only required for our survival, I feel it is eminent. Examining the deep, dark secrets within and healing them can help us accomplish this faster, I think. The most important event that took place when the Anunnakis ruled the Earth was that man rebelled against slavery and demanded sovereignty, and received it. The Anunnaki left. At the end of this article is more information along these lines about what this means for us as a civilization.

My thanks go to my higher self, and Enki for helping me, for all of his love and care he gives to me and to all of life.

When the Source (G-d) created souls in order to be able to reflect back to itself what it was, beings later manifested in the constellation of Lyra. These were the first "creator gods" (the Council of Twelve and Elohim) who knew how to create matter from light. And create they did - planets, stars, universes, life forms for themselves, and eventually others.

The Lyran’s physical lifetimes lasted for approximately one thousand years. In time, however, their life span decreased. They sought out something that would enable them to live longer lives so that they could experience the wonder and miracle of existence. They found that gold not only increased their longevity, but provided them with a superconductivity which gave them the ability to be very telepathic and experience their multidimensionality.

Many thousands of years passed, and the beings from Lyra spread out into the cosmos and created new civilizations. Some went to Vega, others the Pleiades , and yet others Sirius . But, they knew (more or less) of their roots in Lyra/Vega and Sirius and that they were creator gods, at that point a.k.a. the Watchers . The search for gold to maintain their longevity continued because, unfortunately, their source for this magical substance was not forever lasting. Their planet (part of Sirius) was destroyed and their lives were doomed. They had to find another way of living - elsewhere.

The following universal history information is from Bashar (channeled by Darryl Anka), and Enki [through myself]:

"Approximately 4.6 billion years ago in our solar system there existed: Mercury, Venus, Mars (no moons), a 4th planet (larger than Earth with many moons, including a large one), Jupiter, Saturn (no rings), Uranus, Neptune and Pluto (which was a satellite of Saturn).

"4 billion years ago, another planet came into our still forming solar system. This planet had its own moons. It arrived at approximately the same orbit as the 4th planet called Maldek - the one that existed beyond Mars. Mars was then the 3rd planet. [Please read the Sumerian Epic of Creation - the Enuma Elish, as this says it all and explains the importance of the Tablets of Destiny.]

"This planet’s moons impacted the 4th planet shattering it so that part of it became the Asteroid Belt. The remnant of the impact (as it cooled and moved into a tighter orbit around the sun) became the Earth and brought with it the large planet that was the moon of the 4th planet. This is our moon. Approx. 67% of the former planet isEarth. Earth brought with it water - but there was water on the other planet, as well. As it reformed and became a sphere again, the rift where the shattering took place is now the Pacific Ocean area.

"This other planet was responsible for shattering the moons gravitationally that caused Saturn’s rings and for turning Uranus on its side, so that it has a highly inclined axis. And - this also caused Pluto to release from Saturn and come into its own orbit."

This planet, of course, that caused all the havoc was/is Nibiru . It is our 10th planet - not really the 12th. In the late 1980’s it was about halfway back.

Bases were set up on the Moon. Mars’ moons - Phobos and Deimos, are remnants of that original impact that created the Asteroid Belt. These moons have been used for bases and minerals and water.

[The above information on the solar system is recorded in ancient texts, and has been accessed through memory and channelings by myself, in sessions by Bashar, and other entities.]

The group of beings who originated in Lyra later split up and evolved into Vegans, Sirians and Pleiadeans , are known as the Anunnaki. This particular group is attributed to having their own satellite. Their "planet" (which is partially artificial) was considered to be Nibiru. However, Nibiru is not really the home of the Anunnaki. Sirius was.

Nibiru was made up of what I’d call space pirates who imitated other beings, and sometimes a few from one planet would join them, including the Anunnaki. I’ve seen these pirates - they’re not at all like the real Anunnaki. The story of the Anunnaki has been mixed up with these pirates through time so some see the Anunnaki as being only evil.

(Some of the Anunnaki also were present on Mars before it was destroyed, and here’s an article that talks about Mars .)

The name "Anunnaki" can mean many different things [based on Hebrew interpretations] - it is rich with meaning.

  • "An" is short for "anachnu," which means "we"

  • "An" also means "heaven"

  • "Naki" means "clean"

So, the name can mean "We are clean" and "heaven is clean," clean as in "pure." "Ki" means "Earth," so "We are here on Earth." "Heaven is on Earth." "Anu is here on Earth." The "we" is also meant as a collective oneness, of the Source.

They were tall, giant, (in Hebrew the word for giants is "Anakim") and have also been called the Nordics or Blonds, even though not all of them had blond hair or blue eyes. It is easy to see their Lyran and Sirian roots in their appearance. They also glowed a golden color. Their symbol is the winged disk, which not only represents their starships, but also symbolic of the ability of the spirit to fly free while remembering it’s wise, divine source. These Anunnaki were later called the Elohim, and Nephilim (those who descended, came down). However, they were NOT "the" Elohim, but Elohim became the word used for the plural of god.

In B’raisheet (Genesis) 6:4 it is written:

"The Lord said, "My breath shall not abide in man forever, since he too is flesh let the days be allowed him be one hundred and twenty years." It was then, and later too, that the Nephilim appeared on earth - when the divine beings cohabited with the daughters of men, who bore them offspring. They were the heroes of old, men of renown."

It is thought, by some, that the Nephilim were sinful gods who "fell from grace." They fell, alright, in their spaceships. This can also be seen as symbolic. The "fall" having to do with lowering one’s frequency from spirit into physical matter, which is slower and denser. "Fall" also meaning forgetting one’s true Source. As life forms choose to come to Earth their vibration goes through changes so that they are more matched to the frequency of Earth, their new home.

Now these ETs literally came down from space, but souls choosing to incarnate upon the earth also had to change their vibrational frequencies. Enlil was first to come to Earth and was there even before mankind was created. The Sumerian texts called mankind the "Black-Headed People."

If anyone doubts the location of Eden, or why it was chosen by the Anunnaki as a locale, please read on from Genesis:

"Then, before there was any rain, he formed man, from the dust of the earth. He blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being. The Lord God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and placed there the man whom He had formed. ",

and then all the other life forms came into being, water, animals, minerals. Genesis does say that the first river in Eden was Pishon and winds through the whole land of Havilah, where the gold is - the gold of that land is good bdellium is there, and lapis lazuli. The name of the second river is Gihon, the one that winds through the whole land of Cush. The name of the third river is Tigris, the one that flows east of Asshur.

And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

  • Numbers: 13:22 13:28-33

  • Deut: 1:28 2:1- 9:2

  • Joshua: 11:21-22 14:12 14:15 15:13-14

  • Judges: 1:20. Many of these giants were the result of Anunnaki and human reproduction, such as Gilgamesh]

Being a dreamtime medicine person, I traveled to this place of human’s origins and saw the space pirates who gave the impression of being the Anunnaki. This was on the border of Iran and Iraq at Lake Zaga. This lake no longer exists, as it has been covered up by sand, but it exists inside the earth and interdimensionally.

To date no one else has ever talked about Lake Zaga or knows where it is - that is, aside from myself and channeled entities who have confirmed my visions and memories of it. I would like to find someone who can provide me with archaeological, geological evidence that this place once existed. I also know the language of the place, and how there are underground facilities, passageways, there. It was once controlled by the Anunnaki. There are many interesting details of how this place once looked, but I am preserving this information for another time.

This is part of Earth’s story and occurred after there already was life on Earth, hominid beings. Hominids are distinctly human-like creatures, different from apes or chimpanzees. The Anunnaki came to Earth (some of their crafts had crashed in the process), for a haven for themselves, and found it rich with gold, copper, silver and other minerals. They felt that here was their last chance for longevity, survival and the gold was the best conductor of energy which had many important uses. They mined gold for a very long time - hundreds of thousands of years by our standards for theirs only a few weeks have passed.

What, according to the Old Testament happened? God said,

"Now that the man has become like one of us, knowing good and bad, what if he should stretch out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever!"

So man was banished from Eden to work the soil from which he was taken.

Further on in Genesis, we read:

"The Lord saw how great was man’s wickedness on earth, and how every plan devised by his mind was nothing but evil all the time. And the Lord regretted that He had made man on earth, and His heart was saddened. The Lord said, "I will blot out from the earth the men whom I created - men together with beasts, creeping things, and birds of the sky for I regret that I made them." But Noah found favor with the Lord. For My part, I am about to bring the Flood - waters upon the earth - to destroy all flesh under the sky in which there is breath of life everything on earth shall perish. But I will establish My covenant with you, and you shall enter the ark, with your sons. ""

This ark was symbolic and literal, not only a ship, but a covenant.

Stephanie Dalley, author and translator, states from her book "Myths From Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh and Others" (1991) that in the "Epic of Creation" (the epic which explains the history of the cosmos, and the Anunnaki as creator gods), the key element involves the possession of the Tablets of Destinies (which I will discuss at a later time because it’s very relevant to today).

There also could have been several different versions spread around retelling the Epic. About the Epic, Ms. Dally writes:

"Here is no struggle against fate, no mortal heroes, no sense of suspense over the outcome of events. The success of the hero-god Marduk is a foregone conclusion. None of the good gods is injured or killed no tears are shed. Yet cosmic events are narrated: the earliest generations of the gods are recounted leading up to the birth of the latest hero-god the forces of evil and chaos are overcome, whereupon the present order of the universe can be established, with its religious centers, its divisions of time, its celestial bodies moving according to proper rules, and with mankind invented to serve the does.

The gods themselves behave in an orderly fashion: they assemble, discuss, agree, and elect their leaders in a gathering of males after Tiamat’s primeval parturition and the spawning of monsters, goddesses play no part in creating the civilized world, not even in creating mankind."

[p. 228]

However, I find this hard to believe because without a female donor, beings could not procreate, not give birth, and so on. There have been many women I have personally met who remember being birth goddesses, used by the aliens to have embryos implanted within them, to go through the pregnancies and give birth, then raise the children - if they survived.

Dalley also writes that in the Atrahasis, the mother goddess, Ninhursag/Ninharsag-Ki, (Mami, Nintu, who I abbreviate as "Nin"), with Ea, make man out of clay, mixed with the blood from a god slain by Nin, Geshtu-e:

"A ghost came into existence from the god’s flesh, And she (Nin) proclaimed it as his living sign. The ghost existed so as not to forget (the slain god)."

Mixing and concocting continues and the "womb-goddesses" (creator of fate) were assembled. When birthing time arrived, Nin served as the mid-wife. The ghost is the spirit, the breath, divine life force, that was NOT created by the Anunnaki. This is only created by The Source.

[Personal note: My spelling of Ninhursag is how the name is spoken, and how it is in my memory. When analyzed numerologically, it has a number of 111, which according to Norma Smith, Expert Analyst and Ph.D. in Universal Harmonics Analysis, is a master triple number, and its meaning is DNA template for humanity. I think Sitchin ’s spelling of the name as Ninharsag is to justify his translation of the name through Hebrew - "har" meaning "mountain." Ninharsag has a value of 91 and means "spirit" and "oneness." So, it is more of a spiritual name for Ninhursag.]

In Dalley’s own translation of the Epic, Tiamat is a female who is plotted against by her own family, and then has the tables turned on her by her lover Kingu (Qingu, or Zu) and the Anunnaki, after she gives him the Tablets of Destiny - the Anu power. Ea, married to Damkina, overhears the plot and takes the fate into his own hands, slaying Apsu and Mummu. Afterwards he rested in his own quarters and named them Apsu and made his home there. Here is where he and Damkina created their son Marduk, and Marduk was raised by a nurse and he was suckled by the goddesses.

What follows in the Epic is a war (created by accusations and conspiracies back and forth) between the forces of Anshar, his son Anu, his son EA, and his son Marduk against Tiamat and Kingu. Marduk slays Tiamat - of womankind - the gods rejoice and make Marduk their leader. Marduk took back the Tablets of Destinies and became the king of the entire universe.

Let’s remember that we’re talking about extraterrestrials here, (symbolic and literal) not THE Source.

Some of these beings were very wise and knew how to transform energy/light into matter. They were/are seeders. Basically, the Anunnaki who came to Earth were not terribly different from where we are today in terms of scientific development. According to the Enuma Elish, the idea occurred to Marduk that they could create a being that would mine the gold for them and then the gods could take it easy.

They used the blood (DNA) of slain Kingu and combined it with a humanoid being on Earth. After many various experiments in which they created other races, (and they had many horrible failures, as well), they created a hybrid being (Adam, Adapa) which evolved into modern human.

"He created mankind from his blood, Imposed the toil of the gods (on man) and released the gods from it. When Ea the wise had created mankind, Had imposed the toil of the gods on them - That deed is impossible to describe. "

In both the Enuma Elish and Atrahasis the reason for creating man is the same - to relieve the gods of hard labor. Why there are different versions of this story of creation is more speculative than concretely known.

But we can assume that a couple of reasons could be the era in which the Epics were written, who was in power at the time, and who wanted to praise one god over another god or goddess.

Actually, the name "human" can be traced to Enki (a.k.a. EA). HU is a transliteration of the ancient Sumerian EA (Grimms’ law of interchangeable letters and sounds). Isis (pronounced Ish-Ish, which is interesting, because in Hebrew ’Ish’ means ’man') was Enki’s mother. Isis was not Nibiruan she was Sirian, with some Orion connections. His father was Anu. (Anu and his official wife, Antu, had a son named Enlil.)

HU was also Horus, by the way, therefore another connection to Ninhursag, a.k.a. Hathor. What about EArth? EN.KI is "lord of earth." In the early days on Earth, Enki’s symbol was the crescent moonwith a bearded, olden god surrounded with flowing water. The crescent moon relates to science, measuring, the oceans/tides - Enki’s specialties. In later years, the crescent moon developed another association - keep reading. In other ancient "mythology" Enki is known as Oannes, Ptah, Quezecotl, even as his own son, Thoth.

The Anunnaki (who some call the Nephilim ) later procreated with the beings who were on Earth at that time. The souls of those who became human came to Earth by their own free will to experience physicality. Several other extraterrestrial civilizations later contributed their own input into human DNA and created many races of humans and other creatures (a couple of which have since left this planet - such as the dinosaurs). However, these hybrids (our missing link in our evolution) helped the Anunnaki mine their gold.

As seems pretty obvious thus far, the Anunnaki were pattern-makers, the creators of archetypes and a part of the template for human life on Earth. Throughout all cultures on Earth the same story of these gods (albeit with different names depending on where you are), their gifts to humanity, their failures, their characteristics, their loves, their battles and the results of such warfare are recorded in literature, ritual, art, oral tradition and religion. Astrology is one of the major sciences they brought to Earth, and each main god/goddess had their own constellation. The Anunnaki gave the humans knowledge of how to be this human being, how to take care of themselves, gave them guidelines, rules, for proper living.

And yet, at times they were also manipulators, and as long as people didn’t upset the "gods" they were safe and provided for. After some time, the humans evolved to a point where they began to question their purpose and their future. They rebelled against their "creators," the Anunnaki. The humans wanted to have the nectar of the gods for themselves. Why shouldn’t they be able to have their free will, live as long as their gods did? Why shouldn’t they have power and wealth or whatever they felt they lacked?

And then the sad realization that they were NOT like "the gods." Read the early sad epics of Enkidu and Gilgamesh who desperately wanted to be divine and have everlasting life, only to find out that their mortal side won out.

You will also find out more about the flood and the Anunnaki from the Epic of Gilgamesh .

The Anunnaki discussed the possible consequences if they shared the gold (the process of alchemy) with the humans. Some of the Anunnaki, such as the Sirian leader, Enki, were in favor of letting humans be free and equal to them. Other Anunnaki were angry because of the blending of the two life forms and the continual complaints humans had to the Anunnaki.

One of the Anunnaki leaders who had no patience for humans was EN.LIL. Enlil was the Prince of heaven and Earth. He was in charge of airspace, he was chief of the gods and Lord of Sumer. Enki and Enlil were half brothers through the same father, Anu, who was the leader of this Anunnaki group. They also had to contend with Marduk (one of Enki’s sons) who was proclaimed the greatest king of the gods. In later years, the symbol of the crescent moon was associated with Nanna/Sin (Enlil’s and Ninlil’s son), who Sinai was named for, and who became known as Allah.

Note the symbol (with the star) is used in Islam and is directly related to Enlil’s side of the family. This is proof of the battle for power by the two camps of Anunnaki, those of Enki versus those of Enlil - actually a terrible, nuclear war between the Anunnaki took place in the Sinai, and at the Great Pyramid, for control over the region.

Ninhursag acted as mediator and brought the two sides to a peace agreement. (But, in fact, there were many more camps that evolved out of Enki and Enlil’s lineages.)

The Anunnaki had two factions fighting one another over humanity’s future. This was coded in the books as the Garden of Eden (a genetic metaphor and a literal place). Enlil didn’t want the humans to be equal to them. Enki was in favor of allowing humans self-rulership, respect and equality. In order to ensure that humans would be able to, in the long run, benefit from their ancestry, Enki (the serpent of wisdom and healing) suggested those who came to be called Adam and Eve to eat from the Tree of Knowledge.

Had they eaten only from the Tree of Life, humans would have lived a very long time, but not have been the wiser. Nor would humans have reached their own intellectual and spiritual evolution in which they would realize that they are equal to the ’gods’ who created them as new humans by virtue of their DNA.

This "trick" enraged Enlil who, from that point onward, was furious that humans mated with the Anunnaki, and he wanted to punish humanity. We see this reflected in our societies ever since as the wild drive towards materialism, or racism, or shame, or the focus on doing anything which keeps people from remembering who they are, being in denial of who they are, or angry with life - blaming The G-d.

Civilizations and religions were created by Enki and Enlil (and later their offspring). Egypt, for example, was developed by Enki and his lineage. The areas of the Sinai, Jerusalem, Sumer, India and more were fought over by the two families of Enki and Enlil, changing hands back and forth through different Pyramid Wars .

[This was the of battles of Ra/Marduk, Horus, Thoth, Inanna, Set, Osiris, and mediated into peace by Nin.]

The battle Horus fought for Ra against Seth was the first that used humans in a war with weapons, and this began wars mankind fought against itself. The war between the factions of the Anunnaki continued between humans with claims such as, "There is only One god," or "There are many gods," or "My god is THE god, but yours isn’t," or "We are the chosen people, or the superior race - God told us so!"

This wasn’t from The G-d, the love-energy source of all life: instead this was more reflective of "the creator gods" who had their own beliefs, agendas. The battle between Egypt and Israel goes way back, and it was due to the control and confusion set into motion by many of these factors extraterrestrials, angels (and messages from THE G-d), humans, mixed messages, control and fear, between worshipping Enki’s family or Enlil’s family.

Atlantis ’ finally sinking was due to astronomical events combined with those humans and Anunnakis experimenting with sound technology. They didn’t plan on destroying the place - they just miscalculated. The last great flood, approximately 13,000 years ago, became a legend when Enki went against the other Anunnaki and saved humans (the Noahs of Earth) when this accident occurred. The first flood was in Lemuria and then there were others in Atlantis (several times). Those with Enki forced Enlil to help save whatever humans they could.

Enki, having felt completely disgusted and disappointed by Enlil’s fierce control, (refer to the Tower of Babel here) left Earth during the Exodus. Moses in confusion as to who he was speaking with on the mountain. He heard The G-d, messengers (Elohim and Nephilim) as a mixture. The Ten Commandments were supposedly dictated to Moses and he wrote it down, after he was taught the Hebrew alphabet and language, which he would later teach to his people. Have you ever noticed how, at this point in the Hebrew Bible, Adonai is no longer mentioned, and YHWH, Jehovah, Yahweh, is? And yet, everyone thinks they’re the same G-d. Just who is this Jehovah, YHWH? Jehovah was an agent of Enlil!

Not long after the Exodus, the other Anunnaki left their Earthly influence, and their secrets of transforming gold into the powerful substance that allowed their longevity and spiritual abilities also vanished. Their knowledge about life was held in the hands of very few who began to abuse it and became greedy. Then, in time, humans who remembered died or disappeared.

A lot of knowledge was lost. And yet, people kept trying to capture that special essence of gold in the form of statues or other such items, mistakenly believing that power equated to violence and destruction and hoarding wealth. They felt it was their key to immortality - that which would make them THE G-d. Powdered gold has beneficial properties, but the real gold is within - remembering one’s self and connection to Source. This is really what Enki had tried to infuse into people.

The Anunnaki left the Earth, in a sense, but not without creating counterparts or aspects of themselves who would reincarnate as humans in order to share the human experience with them, their oversouls.

Some of these continued the lineage through King David and Jesus. Some of these counterparts or aspects have stubbornly stuck to what they presume was Enlil’s and Marduk’s agenda to control the Earth for their own purposes, keeping humans more fearful, dependent, ignorant. Yet, others continue to share the ancient wisdom from other Anunnaki, encouraging humanity to remember their source which they can access from within their individual and collective cellular/spiritual memories in order to break the ancient and false bonds of slavery, fear and ignorance and reclaim what they feel is rightfully theirs.

Any way you look at it, the confusing, chaotic battle continues - and it doesn’t have to.


Are these Anunnaki "gods" returning to Earth via Nibiru ? (Remember - Nibiru really wasn’t the home of the Anunnaki.) "They" have never really left! First of all, they exist in many of us as a reincarnation or as aspects of them. (And boy, that’s created some sad, major identity crises.)

And as a human civilization, we have finally reached the understanding that we are more than ETs or humans, and we do have free will and choice. We can decide how WE want our experiences to be. Secondly, time exists in the third dimension but not beyond, so one can argue that everything is happening right now, but honestly, that doesn’t always change what already happened in our "past." All that matters is NOW.

Please don’t make a big deal about the "return of Nibiru." If you’re looking for a savior, look to yourselves. I know that the family of Anu is helping us. We are also helping the few Anunnaki and humans who are still tuck in old, negative paradigms. Whatever we, or they, do effects the whole (all of life in the cosmos). Regardless, we all have to be self-responsible. And, if one day the Anunnaki, will we still be playing out old dramas and wars? Will we be able to greet them as equals? Will we even want them to be here? Will we care, either way? Is it even possible for these old Anunnaki to return here and be as they once were?

If we want our lives to be destructive or a joyous creation, the choice is ours - truly it is. However, we have to know that our thoughts and feelings are manifesting instantaneously as our reality, so we have to be more aware than ever of what we focus on and CHOOSE what we want for ourselves. We have to know who WE are, what our own energy is like versus what another’s is like. Using our individual and collective power of choice is our means of attaining complete independence from the limitations and illusions we, or others, have imposed upon us/ourselves. After all, if we, as souls, didn’t want to be part of the Anunnaki experience, in a physical life on Earth, we wouldn’t have been. It was always a co-creation.

Some of the Anunnaki games, such as that of the needy toddler or dysfunctional adolescent, are still being played by people on Earth: who is more godly, who is more deserving, who is evil, who is powerful, who has to be punished, who gets to own that land, or "I want it, just because I want it, or because he has one!" These "gods" wanted things only "their" way.

Some people feel so badly for what they did as Anunnaki that they cover it up or punish themselves, over and over, never letting go of the past. Then there are others won’t give up on blaming the Anunnaki for making their current lives miserable, always saying, "It’s their fault. I hate them. Poor me."

It’s time to have forgiveness, compassion, and gratitude, for them, for ourselves - all of our Selves, and become very clear what we’re doing, and why. If we are repeating old patterns, relating to any one of these Anunnaki archetypes, we have to become aware of how destructive these patterns can be. And it’s in us - from Enki to Enlil to Sin, from Marduk to Inanna, from those masquerading as the Anunnaki.

We have been repeating battles (worldwide), holding on to ancient and unhealthy grudges and dramas, martyring ourselves, fearful of letting go (because these old patterns are comfortable and familiar) and moving forward.

Which brings me to identity crises. What about people who claim they are, or were, one of these Anunnaki? There are many who do. I can tell you that I’ve met at least 5 people who all claim to be Enki, several more Inannas, and there are others who remember being Anu, Nin, and lesser known Anunnaki.

I, too, remember being part of the Anunnaki family. Sometimes these encounters and friendships have been destroyed all because of being hung up on a past identity. I’ve had confrontations and arguments with people who demand I acknowledge them as being the only Enki, or so and so. But, I can’t acknowledge it as being fact if I feel it is a delusion, a hope, a confusion.

Sometimes they are identifying with an archetype thinking it is exactly the same as the individual it symbolizes, such as the hero who builds and saves the world (Enki) the evil, selfish, destructive demon (Marduk) the wronged and martyred tantric, materialistic Queen (Inanna) the mother of all creation (Isis), and so on.

What does it mean and why are people identifying this way? That varies from person to person. Some people are actual reincarnational aspects, off-shoots of these beings and some like to believe that they were the one and only this, or that. Some were friends or family members of them, but not "them." Some are channeling various Anunnakis.

From what I have encountered, I have not found many who were those exact, complete, real, one and only beings such as Anu reincarnated in this lifetime. I think that’s very rare. It is more common that we share in the same oversoul as one of them, which sometimes makes it feel like we were them because oversoul share information with those in it. But, if identifying with one of them is key for you in this lifetime - why is that? How are these archetypes helping you?

Is there some importance in remembering one’s personal connection with the Anunnaki? I think it relates to self-discovery, healing, and in some cases a need to feel special, important. To say "I am Enki, or Marduk, or Hathor, or the almighty YHWH, or Queen of Heaven, or Jesus/Krishna" is not being real, right now. Whether or not you were one of them, these are OLD identities and not who you, or they, are on Earth at this moment.

Even if you are a multidimensional aspect of one of them that doesn’t make you them because your focus is here. What if you were them back then? What have you learned about your experience and yourself? What if you’re only WISHING you were them? Should it matter to anyone else?

Well, many people (regardless of affiliation with the Anunnaki) still keep playing out the old roles and battles. That doesn’t mean people have to bow down and worship them or help them live in the past or an illusion of grandeur and satisfy their negative ego. Maybe there’s some denial going on, or failure to own up to what they did, or someone in their oversoul did, or think they did (when they really didn’t), once up on a time?

Okay - then it’s up to that person to deal with it or not. In the long run, it doesn’t matter anyway - that identity is not what your, or their, real essence is, nor who you are now in physicality. But, it can still help a lot to be deeply honest about it. We’re still part of everyone and All That Is and we have many lifetimes and experiences - the Anunnaki could be just one of them. It’s the importance one places on this identification and separation that could use some exploration and understanding.

Until we see this, forgive and release ourselves, and them, release the past and value our true selves, we can’t move forward we can’t even live productively or whole in the present. Let’s clean up our act. We can re-member that we (our multidimensional selves) were and/or are of these ETs and "creator gods." We share much of the same DNA - but THIS DOESN’T MEAN THAT WE HAVE TO REPLAY THEIR OLD BATTLES AND KEEP THEIR DYSFUNCTIONS. Let go of these old patterns. They are not our gods or goddesses, and yet they did give us much that makes us who we are today. Let’s thank them and let them go. We may share similar feelings and thoughts, but more importantly we are all from the same Source.

And actually, it doesn’t matter if we focus on that ET "stuff" within us, or not, unless one has an issue about it.

We are who we are right now - a combination of our past and present, creating our future selves. It is my hope that rather than focusing on hatred, fear, racism, sexism, separation, or superiority of one religion above another, humanity can release more of the old energies of false power, martyrhood, tyranny, victimhood, fear, manipulation and pain.

Then we can embrace our higher selves and the oneness of all creation, the free, creative beings that we are, appreciate our differences and what we share in common, and move into a future of more love, light, knowledge, wisdom, and joy. We have to remember that we are all human beings (little matters which color, religion, gender, and so forth), and all G-d’s creations.

The choice and opportunity is always before us to remember more of who we are. The humans rebelled against the Anunnaki along time ago and the Anunnaki left. What does this say about us? We claimed Earth and got it. We claimed our sovereignty and got it.

"Then he realized I indeed am this creation for I have poured it forth from myself. In that way he became this creation. And verily, he who knows this becomes in this creation, a creator."

--- The Upanishads

If you’d like a biblical reference, here’s one from Deuteronomy 30:

"For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not hidden from thee, neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and cause us to hear it, that we may do it? Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and cause us to hear it, that we may do it? But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."

This means FIND YOUR OWN RELATIONSHIP AND DEFINITION OF GOD BY GOING WITHIN YOURSELF, AND THEREIN YOU SHALL KNOW AUTHENTIC TRUTH (BEAUTY, LOVE, AND PEACE). Don’t be afraid to be all that love and light that you are. It is your birthright.

The Sumerians. Their History, Culture and Character

Translation by Samuel Noah Kramer

(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), PP. 17483

introductory material paraphrased and summarized

by M. Eliade from Kramer, OP. Cit., PP. 171-4

Enki, the king of the Abzu, overpowering in his majesty, speaks up with authority:
’My father, the king of the universe,
Brought me into existence in the universe,
My ancestor, the king of all the lands,
Gathered together all the, ME’s, placed the me’s in my hand.
From the Ekur, the house of Enlil,
I brought craftsmanship to my Abzu of Eridu.
I am the fecund seed, engendered by the great wild ox, I am the first born son of An,
I am the "great storm" who goes forth out of the "great below," I am the lord of the Land,
I am the gugal of the chieftains, I am the father of all the lands,
I am the "big brother" of the gods, I am he who brings full prosperity,
I am the record keeper of heaven and earth,
I am the car and the mind of all the lands,
I am he who directs justice with the king An on An’s dais,
I am he who decrees the fates with Enlil in the "mountain of wisdom,"
He placed in my hand the decreeing of the fates of the "place where the sun rises,"
I am he to whom Nintu pays due homage,
I am he who has been called a good name by Ninhursag,
I am the leader of the Anunnaki,
I am he who has been born as the first son of the holy An.
After the lord had uttered (his) exaltedness,
After the great Prince had himself pronounced his praise,
The Anunnaki came before him in prayer and supplication:
’Lord who directs craftsmanship,
Who makes decisions, the glorified Enki praise!’
For a second time, because of his great joy,:
Enki, the king of the Abzu, in his majesty, speaks up with authority
’I am the lord, I am one whose command is unquestioned, I am the
foremost in all things,
At my command the stalls have been built, the sheepfolds have been enclosed,
When I approached heaven a rain of prosperity poured down from heaven,
When I approached the earth, there was a high flood,
When I approached its green meadows,
The heaps and mounds were piled up at my word.

[After the almost unintelligible description of Enki’s rites, Enki proceeds to decree the fates of a number of cities. Ur is one example.]
He proceeded to the shrine Ur,
Enki, the king of the Abzu decrees its fate:
City possessing all that is appropriate, water-washed, firm-standing ox,
Dais of abundance of the highland, knees open, green like a mountain,
Hashur-grove, wide of shade-he who is lordly because of his might
Has directed your perfect ME’s,
Enlil, the "great mountain," has pronounced your lofty -name in the universe.
City whose fate has been decreed by Enlil,
Shrine Ur, may you rise heaven high

[Enki next stocks the land with various items of prosperity: A deity is placed in charge of each. For example:]
He directed the plow and the . . . yoke,
The great prince Enki put the ’horned oxen’ in the . . . Opened the holy furrows,
Made grow the grain in the cultivated field.
The lord who do-ns the diadem, the ornament of the high plain,
The robust, the farmer of Enlil, Enkimdu, the man of the ditch and dike,
Enki placed in charge of them.
The lord called the cultivated field, put there the checkered grain,
Heaped up its . . . grain, the checkered grain, the innuba-grain into piles,
Enki multiplied the heaps and mounds,
With Enlil he spread wide the abundance in the Land,
Her whose head and side are dappled, whose face is honey-covered,
The Lady, the procreatress, the vigour of the Land, the ’life’ of the black-heads,
Ashnan, the nourishing bread, the bread of all,
Enki placed in charge of them.
He built stalls, directed the purification rites,
Erected sheepfolds, put there the best fat and milk,
Brought joy to the dining halls of the gods,
In the vegetation-like plain he made prosperity prevail.

He filled the Ehur, the house of Enlil, with possessions,
Enlil rejoiced with Enki, Nippur was joyous,
He fixed the borders, demarcated them with boundary stones,
Enki, for the Anunnaki,
Erected dwelling places in the cities,
Set up kids for them in the countryside,
The hero, the bull who comes forth out of the hashur (forest), who roars lion-like,
The valiant Utu, the bull who stands secure, who proudly displays his power,
The father of the great city, the place where the sun rises, the great herald of holy An,
The judge, the decision-maker of the gods,
Who wears a lapis lazuli beard, who comes forth from the holy heaven,
the .. . heaven,
Utu, the son born of Ningal,
Enki placed in charge of the entire universe.

Mummies With Golden Tongues Found in Ancient Egyptian Burial Site

A new discovery in Egypt includes mummies with some rather unique accessories.

According to CNN, archeologists from the University of Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic unearthed 16 new burial shafts in the Taposiris Magna Temple. The team, led by Dr. Kathleen Martinez, have been working at the site for years and finding intriguing new clues to Egypt's past, including finding mummies of "high status" individuals that could provide clues to the whereabouts of Cleopatra's tomb back in July 2020.

3 Spacecrafts Are Set to Reach Mars This Month

Getting to the Red Planet is notoriously difficult.

This more recent discovery found mummies from the Greek and Roman eras, which were in "poor condition," according to CNN, but had some fascinating objects buried with them.

According to a Facebook post by Egypt's Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, researchers found "amulets of gold foil in the form of a tongue that were placed in the mouth of the mummy." The post explains that the golden tongues were "a special ritual to ensure their ability to speak in the after life before the Osirian court."

But, according to the Facebook post, Martinez noted two specific mummies that were of special significance. One of these mummies had been buried with "the remains of scrolls and parts of the cartonnage," which depicted gilded decorations in honor of the god Osiris. The other wore a crown "decorated with horns, and the cobra snake at the forehead," as well as a necklace that had a pendant in the shape of a falcon's head, the symbol for the god Horus.

In addition, the researchers found a funeral mask for a woman decorated with a wreath of gold leaves and eight additional funeral masks made of marble, according to CNN. "These masks show high craftsmanship in sculpture and depiction of the features of its owners," it says on the Facebook post.

With so many fascinating (and unique) finds, the mission to excavate Taposiris Magna Temple could uncover so many more clues to the ancient world in the next few years.

Andrea Romano is a freelance writer in New York City. Follow her on Twitter @theandrearomano.

A New Ancient Crystal Skull Discovered!

The Mitchell-Hedges Crystal Skull is no longer unique! Out of Africa – by way of California – emerges another ancient skull, “Compassion”, with a detachable jaw. Already, this skull is re-carving the crystal skull landscape!
by Philip Coppens

With the 2008 release of “Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull”, crystal skulls attained a far higher level of exposure than ever before. Before, crystal skulls had only become somewhat famous in the 1980s, particularly in New Age circles. Today, there are hundreds of crystal skulls, almost all of them of modern fabrication (most made in China) and used in various New Age-type seminars. Only a handful of skulls are suspected of having ancient origins, including the most famous of all crystal skulls: the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull.

“Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull” makes scant references to the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull. It stands out for it is by far the most complex, and the only skull with a detachable jaw, meaning that whomever made this, was a master artist in carving crystal – able to create a feat that modern carvers have been unable to accomplish. Gerald Leandro De Souza, a master skull carver from Brazil with 25 years of experience behind him, notes that “the process of cutting the jaw from a skull causes the jaw to break and is almost impossible for skull carvers to accomplish.”

Still, sceptics, principally led by Jane Walsh, an anthropologist at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, try to argue that all these skulls are of modern fabrications. So far, none of the claims made by Walsh and co. have been substantiated, let alone supported by factual evidence. Specifically, Walsh tries to point the finger to Germany and the town of Idar-Oberstein, arguing most of these skulls were carved there by the resident artists. However, no records of skull carving have ever been found there there are no records of any carver doing carving in the middle of the 19th century, when some of these skulls are said to have been made. In short, Walsh’s theories remain totally unsubstantiated – not very scientific!

On the other side of the debate are the likes of Nick Nocerino, one of the first crystal skull researchers, who travelled extensively throughout Central America, in search of them. He noted how on several occasions, Indian tribes offered skulls on sale to him, as with the money, the local shamans could buy precious Western medicine and like, to help their tribe at a time when the Mayan people were subjected to genocide. Nocerino always refused such offers, as he strongly believed the skulls were such an integral part of Mayan society, that these tribes needed their precious talisman. (Though he did everything to help the tribes in other ways.) The Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull too comes with a Central American origin. The family itself stated that Anna Mitchell-Hedges found the skull in the ruins of Lubaantuun on her 17th birthday in 1924. It is a story Anna adhered to until her death, though it was subjected to intense criticism from the sceptics. Indeed, a more likely story about how her father found the skull is told in his novel, “The White Tiger”, published in 1931. In it, he relates a largely autobiographical account of an Englishman who is initiated by a Mayan tribe, to become the principal caretaker of a most important treasure. When the Mayan priest shows him the treasure, the Englishman is led down into a series of tunnels, before the treasure is unveiled to him: “Before him, piled in endless confusion, lay the treasure of the Aztecs. Gold chalices, bowls, jars and other vessels of every size and shape immense plaques and strange ornaments all glittered dully. Of precious stones there were none, but many rare chalchihuitl (jadeite pendants) [sic]. Masks of obsidian and shells beautifully inlaid were all heaped together with heads carved from solid blocks of crystal. Legend had not exaggerated the treasure of the Aztecs. Almost boundless wealth lay at the disposal of the White Tiger.”

“Heads carved from solid blocks of crystals”: a reference to crystal skulls made by Frederick “Mike” Mitchell-Hedges in 1931, more than a decade before he – according to the likes of Walsh – acquired a skull at auction at Sotheby’s in London in 1943. Because it is the most complex, the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull is both the most famous and the most debated. It is unique. But today, the Mitchell-Hedges skull is no longer unique: on August 6, 2009, former Alaskan fisherman Joe Bennett was able to finally buy, from a Californian import shop, a crystal skull… with a detachable jaw, which he soon named “Compassion”. A new era in crystal skull research had therefore dawned, for a number of reasons.

Bennett is a retired fisherman from Alaska. He had earned the nickname “the crystal sailor”, as for years, he had been collecting an impressive array of crystals. In his hunt for crystals, in 2006, he stumbled upon a crystal skull, in an import store in Carmel, California. The skull had belonged to a close friend of the owners, who had brought it over from Africa. Upon his death his family liquidated the estate and asked the import store to sell the crystal skull for them.

Bennett relates how he “noticed a crystal skull in the back of this shop on a high shelf. I admired the extreme craftsmanship, saw the price and forgot about it. Like most people I didn’t have any reference for crystal skulls other than Halloween witches or Black Magic.” However, the skull did not let go of Joe, who had a series of vivid dreams about the skull, so much so that he dispatched his sister – who lived nearby – to make a series of photographs, which she sent to Joe. It was now only a matter of time before the skull would end up in Bennett’s care. Compassion is human-sized and clear quartz, 5.5” tall, 5.5” wide and 8 inches long, weighing 11 pounds – very similar in dimensions to the Mitchell-Hedges skull. The mouth has 28 teeth. Little is known of the origins of the skull. It is known that the skull was in storage in the United States for five years prior to the shop putting it up for sale. Before, it had spent 22 years in a warehouse in Africa. The name of the people who owned it in Africa is not a matter of public record, but initial analyses of the skull have shown that the crystal is not from Brazil. Gerald Leandro De Souza argues that the “quartz probably is from Africa”. The likeliest source is Namibia, Africa, which is a well-known location where quartz crystal can be found.

Whereas the Mitchell-Hedges skull is “crystal clear”, Compassion is more like another crystal skull, known as MAX: Compassion is made out of three distinct layers (MAX has five such layers). The largest, frontal part is made of the clearest quartz crystal. Behind, roughly the top of the forehead, is a somewhat softer section of less-clear crystal. Behind is a final, third layer, separated from the others by a small fissure of iron oxide, which one can only truly see from the back of the skull.

The possibility that the material inside the fissure is iron oxide was first suggested by crystal carver James Ziegler, who added that the material at the bottom of the fissure was feldspar. This conclusion was confirmed when Bennett had the skull examined by Dr. Ray Corbett, Associate Curator of Archaeology at the Natural History Museum in Santa Barbara and Geologist Dr. John Minch on March 30, 2010. It was Minch who confirmed that the fissure was filled with iron oxide.

These experts furthermore accepted that the grounding of the crystal had occurred by hand, and not by machine. One area of the skull show pie-shaped areas, which a carver would keep, but a grinding wheel would smooth out. There are other aspects of the skull, especially to do with a lack of symmetry between the right and left side, which show that the work was carried out by human hands. Corbett and Minch also identified that the natural growth of the crystal is for the skull to be placed with the teeth pointing up. This means that the iron oxide layer was at the bottom of the then axis of the crystal, with the layer of the face being the clearest and the top one. The carver would have to carve against the grain of the skull and skip over these fractures, a task which crystal carvers say is extremely hard to do – surpassing their expertise.

When one runs a fingernail along the top of the skull, one can feel the fractures between the layers. Dr. Minch said that whoever made this skull, would have to do so very slowly, for if the quartz were to get hot, it would shatter – thus underlining that the usage of tools in the making of this skull was unlikely.

During testing, Dr. Minch also noted there was an “air bubble” inside the skull. When the skull is rocked, the bubble moves over half the thickness (about 1mm) up and down in a solution which he believes is water, which somehow made its way into the skull and trapped the air bubble inside. Bennett has speculated whether this air bubble should be interpreted as a representation of the pineal gland, a part of the brain that is often referred to as the “third eye”, and which is therefore heavily imbued with esoteric meaning. René Descartes even labelled it the seat of the soul, echoing a belief that goes back thousands of years.

Minch also found golden rutile in both skull and jaw. Rutile is a major ore of titanium, and is found as microscopic inclusions in quartz and other precious gemstones. It is responsible for many of the light effects that one sees within these objects.

Scientists have a hard time admitting that the detachable jaw of the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull is made from crystal (it is), and is from the same crystal as the rest of the skull (it is). But no such doubt can arise in the case of Compassion: its right cheek has a foil in the crystal that runs from the right cheek into jaw, and hence clearly shows that both the main part of the skull and the jaw are from the same crystal.

It will be interesting to see what sceptics are now going to do. In the case of the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull, they tried to debate the jaw away, as the creation of such a jaw has never been accomplished by modern crystal workers. But Compassion will not look compassionately upon these sceptics, who will have to come up with stronger arguments, if they want to persist in continuing the same old controversies in trying to explain away what is one of the most interesting recent discoveries. However impressive Compassion is, its face is not symmetrical. With its detachable jaw placed underneath the skull’s teeth, Compassion looks and is symmetrical, but remove the jaw, and it becomes clear that the skull is off-centre: the teeth are slanted to the right. The only place where polishing marks are evident to the human eye is under the maxilla. This area was not finely polished, maybe to illustrate it was hand carved. The rest of the skull does not show any of these marks. Indeed, Compassion brings us to an interesting conclusion: the skull is clearly made by human hands, but whomever made it, had an expertise in working with quartz crystal, which exceeds that of anyone alive today. In short, there is an entire lost science of working with quartz crystal. But where did it come from, and where did it go?

Finally, when we stare into its eyes, it is clear that both are not identical: the left eye is far clearer than the right. It was in fact while Bennett and his wife stared into the skull’s eyes, that they felt “it” looked sad. His wife said she “showed compassion in her gaze” and a name was born. Both also felt that Compassion held a feminine energy.

Bennett has photographed the skull extensively. Some of the close-ups have revealed a number of interesting subliminal images that Compassion conjures up. When the skull was placed on a light-box, one such image that emerged was of an enigmatic head, while nearby, there was the outline of a horse’s head. The key question is whether Compassion can ever be proven to be ancient. As mentioned, the likes of Jane Walsh from the Smithsonian have gone out of their way – abandoning the scientific process altogether – to argue come what may that all skulls are of modern origin. Their scientific bias was apparent during the testing of the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull in 2008, when one member of the team straightforwardly proclaimed that the detachable jaw clearly was and could only be glass. When it was found out not to be glass soon afterwards, he exclaimed somewhat reservedly “this did not mean it was crystal” – even though previous testing by Hewlett-Packard had clearly shown that the jaw was indeed crystal!

The problem is that crystal is impossible to date, so any dating needs to happen through other, secondary means. Evidence of tools, especially the wheel, has been put forward as the key indicator as to whether a skull is ancient (read: pre-Columbian) or modern. However much this argument is flawed, it cannot apply to a skull that comes from Africa – Africa was never an isolated continent, witnessing the origins of Mankind several tens of thousands of years ago. The argument only works if we see crystal skulls as a purely American phenomenon, whereby the wheel is assumed to have been introduced with the arrival of Western Europeans.

Of course, the skull’s presence in Africa for a number of decades does not mean it was always there. Equally, the origins of civilisation in Central America itself remains enigmatic. The Olmec civilisation dates back to at least 1200 BC, and some have argued for an African origin to this civilisation. In 1972, Dr. A. Wiercinski argued that some of the Olmecs were of African origin, supporting his claim with skeletal evidence from several Olmec sites. According to Clyde Winters, the Olmecs were from the Mandinka region of West Africa (north of Namibia). Their language is known as Mende, the script which was actually found on monuments at Monte Alban in Mexico. Interestingly, it is at Monte Alban that evidence has been found that the Mayans were definitely familiar with crystal artefacts.

Still, the quartz crystal itself having Namibia as its likeliest origin means that the skull itself must have had an African connection, wherever it was carved or used. And whereas there are Mayan legends of how skulls with removable jaws could “sing and talk” during certain religious ceremonies that were performed in the many Mayan sanctuaries, the question is which African cultures held crystal skulls dear.

Little is known about Compassion and seeing its existence is only known about for a year, most discoveries about it are still to come. If we were to assume that it is indeed of African origins, then we are confronted with crystal skulls on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, bearing great similarities. Are they evidence of pre-Columbian contact between the two continents, in which case the Olmecs are the likeliest candidate, or should we look at much older origins, including the fabled lost civilisation of Atlantis? Those who have communicated with the skulls – in trance, meditation or otherwise – keep referring to an Atlantean connection. During a crystal skull conference in September 2009 – one of the first public airings of Compassion – Mayan elder Hunbatz Men was one of the speakers and he became intrigued by Compassion. Studying the skull closely, he exclaimed “Atlantis!” He added that there was a matrix in the back of the skull which showed an ancient map which he did not understand. Several months later, Bennett realised that the iron oxide layer in the skull largely resembles a map of the African continent. Coincidence, or not?

Another psychic who has worked with Compassion is Carole Wilson/Davis. Wilson originally worked with the Mitchell-Hedges skull, resulting in “The Skull Speaks”, published in 1985 and one of the first books to appear on crystal skulls altogether. For Wilson, the iron oxide came in the shape of a phoenix, spreading its wings, with a head and a beak in the centre. She added that the information from Compassion changed, whereas that of the Mitchell-Hedges was stable – “the same information every day.” Within Mayan creation mythology, there is a special role for skulls. Ancient temple complexes like Chichen Itza are three-dimensional renderings of the Mayan creation myth. Near the famous pyramid and ball court is an unimpressive “Platform of the Skull”. In the creation myth, when playing ball, the Twin Maize Gods disturbed the lords of Xibalba, the Mayan underworld. The Xibalbans summoned the Maize Gods to the underworld to answer for their disrespectful behaviour. There, they subjected them to a series of trials. When they failed these tests, they were killed and buried in the ball court of Xibalba. The eldest twin was decapitated, his head hung in the tree next to the ball court, as a warning to anyone who might repeat their offence. This was visualised on the Platform of the Skull. There is no archaeological evidence as to what type of skull hung there, but seeing it was a divine skull, which spoke and spat, a crystal skull with a detachable jaw would definitely have impressed all visitors – in a way any other type of skull would not have been able to accomplish!

Crystal balls are also used for scrying. Is it possible that Compassion was used for scrying? The various images that people have seen inside of her, would thus be parts of the scrying process. And extended staring in the skull might have placed the person in a trance. Users of Compassion are sometimes transported to another reality, for example by staring into its eyes – especially the left one. In the 1980s, when the Central American crystal skulls came to prominence, various atrocious crimes were committed against the Mayan population there. In countries like Guatemala, an oppressive regime slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Mayan people. It took years before the news of this “Silent Holocaust” became known throughout the genocide, Western governments supported the Guatemalan government. Only able to rely on themselves, the Mayan people began to organise themselves – becoming terrorists or freedom fighters, depending on your perspective – and they began to use key dates from the Mayan calendar for their campaigns, hoping to shake the Mayan people awake and embrace their true origins and common heritage – one that transcended the modern borders Western world powers had created. Sociologists have labelled it the “Mayan Renaissance”. Today, three decades later, the world is very much aware of the Mayan calendar – especially its key date, December 21, 2012 – and millions of people visit the various Mayan monuments of Central America.

The 2010 World Cup in South Africa was seen as a joyous event for Africa, showing that Africa is not just a country of civil war and hunger. There is great joy in a continent that gave us the Ancient Egyptian civilisation, while Kenya is seen as the “cradle of Mankind”, for the remains of the earliest hominids have been found in that country. Twenty years ago, American bestselling author Kathleen McGowan attended a crystal skull workshop lead by Susan McCune. McGowan was told that in the future, she would work with skulls from Africa and that several skulls would emerge from that continent. When she saw Compassion in July 2010, McGowan remembered McCune’s prophecy. And if McCune is right, Compassion is but the first in a series of African skulls that will make their existence known the world. And with their emergence, will there be a renewed appreciation for the African continent? At this moment in time, Compassion’s existence has already changed the entire crystal skull debate, showing that the Mitchell-Hedges skull is not unique in its complexity, and that Central America is unlikely to be the only origin of crystal skulls. The question as to the origins of the crystal skulls has therefore been redefined: did various ancient cultures have them? Did an African civilisation bring them to the American continent? Or do we need to delve further back in time, to a lost civilisation, like Atlantis, from which these skulls originated? A new dawn in crystal skull research has just broken… This article appeared in Atlantis Rising, Issue 84 (November – December 2010), Frontier 94 (17.1, January – February 2011) and Mysteries Magazin 2011.2 (March 2011).

Stunning 1,600-yr-old Biblical Mosaics Found in Ancient Galilean Village

A 1,600-year-old biblical triptych of mosaics made of tiny stone cubes (or tesserae) was discovered at a synagogue in the ancient Galilean village of Huqoq in Israel in an excavation led by professor Jodi Magness of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

“We’ve uncovered the first depiction of the episode of Elim ever found in ancient Jewish art,” said Dr. Magness. This comes on the heels of earlier mosaic discoveries at this site which include depictions of The Tower of Babel, Jonah and the Giant Fish, and the Parting of the Red Sea.

Dr. Magness together with a team of researchers and students uncovered the first ancient Jewish depiction of the Elim episode from the Book of Exodus. The mosaic depicts the experience of the Israelites camping at Elim after leaving Egypt and wandering in the wilderness without water, which is described in Exodus 15:27. The 15th chapter and 27th verse describes the site of Elim in which exiled Egyptians sought refuge after exhaustive travel.

A mosaic depicting the building of the Tower of Babel in the ancient Huqoq synagogue. (Jim Haberman, Courtesy UNC-Chapel Hill)

“Elim is where the Israelites camped after leaving Egypt and wandering in the wilderness without water,” said Dr. Magness. The Biblical mosaics discovered in the 5th century synagogue depicts a scene from the book of Exodus. The 15th chapter and 27th verse describes the site of Elim in which exiled Egyptians sought refuge after exhaustive travel.

The parting of the Red Sea mosaic in the ancient Huqoq synagogue. (Jim Haberman, Courtesy: UNC-Chapel Hill)

Magness said that the Elim panel “is interesting as it is generally considered a fairly minor episode in the Israelites’ desert wanderings, which raises the question of why it was significant to this Jewish congregation in Lower Galilee.”

Full mosaic depicting Jonah being swallowed by a giant fish in the ancient Huqoq synagogue. (Jim Haberman, Courtesy UNC-Chapel Hill)

Dr. Magness told the Jewish Press, “The mosaic is divided into three horizontal strips, or registers. We see clusters of dates being harvested by male agricultural workers wearing loincloths, who are sliding the dates down ropes held by other men. The middle register shows a row of wells alternating with date palms. On the left side of the panel, a man in a short tunic is carrying a water jar and entering the arched gate of a city flanked by crenellated towers. An inscription above the gate reads, ‘And they came to Elim.’ ”

A detail from the newly-discovered Elim mosaic. (Jim Haberman, Courtesy: UNC-Chapel Hill)

It is the ninth year that the university has been digging at the site. Other mosaics have been uncovered. Another important discovery: “Chapter 7 in the book of Daniel describes four beasts which represent the four kingdoms leading up to the end of days,” Dr. Magness said. “This year our team discovered mosaics in the synagogue’s north aisle depicting these four beasts, as indicated by a fragmentary Aramaic inscription referring to the first beast: a lion with eagle’s wings. The lion itself is not preserved, nor is the third beast. However, the second beast from Daniel 7:4 – a bear with three ribs protruding from its mouth – is preserved. So is most of the fourth beast, which is described in Daniel 7:7 as having iron teeth.”

Daniel in the Lion’s Den. Briton Rivière, 1890

The historical record for an exodus of Jews from Egypt has been much discussed. The May/June 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review addresses both questions—“Did the Exodus happen?” and “When did the Exodus happen?” In the article, evidence is presented that generally supports a 13th-century B.C.E. Exodus during the Ramesside Period, when Egypt’s 19th Dynasty ruled.

The article examines Egyptian texts, artifacts, and archaeological sites, which demonstrate that the Bible recounts actual memories from the 13th century B.C.E. For example, the names of three places that appear in the Biblical account of Israel’s exodus correspond to Egyptian place names from the Ramesside Period.

The Biblical mosaics have been removed from the site for conservation, and the excavated areas have been backfilled. Excavations are scheduled to continue in the summer of 2020. Sponsors of the project are UNC-Chapel Hill, Austin College, Baylor University, Brigham Young University and the University of Toronto.

We are committed to completing the excavation of the synagogue before we turn the site over to the state of Israel, with the hope that they will develop and open it to the public in the future,” Dr. Magness said.

2000 Year Old Medicinal Pills Found In Ancient Greek Shipwreck

Medicinal pills from two thousand years ago wasn't anything I had expected to exist so long ago, so I have to say that I'm a bit amazed. However, it remains to be seen if the extracts are now known to treat diseases effectively, according to the article.

In 130 BC, a ship fashioned from the wood of walnut trees and bulging with medicines and Syrian glassware sank off the coast of Tuscany, Italy. Archaeologists found its precious load 20 years ago and now, for the first time, archaeobotanists have been able to examine and analyse pills that were prepared by the physicians of ancient Greece.
(. )
"For the first time, we have physical evidence of what we have in writing from the ancient Greek physicians Dioscorides and Galen," says Alain Touwaide of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC.
(. )
Drugs described by Dioscorides and another Greek physician known as Galen of Pergamon have often been dismissed as ineffectual quackery. "Scholars and scientists have often dismissed the literature on such medicines, and expressed doubt about their possible efficacy, which they attributed only to the presence of opium," says Touwaide. He hopes to resolve this debate by exploring whether the plant extracts in the pills are now known to treat illnesses effectively.

He also hopes to discover therian – a medicine described by Galen in the second century AD that contains more than 80 different plant extracts – and document the exact measurements ancient doctors used to manufacture the pills. "Who knows, these ancient medicines could open new paths for pharmacological research," says Touwaide.

After searching some of the different plants the pills contained extracts from, it seems as if many of them have properties that could combat different kinds of cancers, help with the liver functions and improve digestion as well many more.

Symposium/conference abstract is here, forward to page 18 of the pdf

The pdf is 193 pages long, I'm pasting the entire abstract.

Composition of pharmaceuticals from a 1st century BC/AD
Roman shipwreck based on chloroplast DNA sequences

Robert Fleischer1, Alain Touwaide2, Emanuela Appetiti2, Danica Harbaugh1,2 & John

1Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, MRC 5503, Smithsonian
Conservation Biology Institute, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012
2Department of Botany, MRC-166, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012

We report here on chloroplast DNA sequences obtained from multiple extractions and
PCR amplifications from two large “pills” obtained from a box of medicines found in
a 1st Century BC/AD Roman shipwreck with the collaboration of the Soprintendenza
per i Beni Archeologici di Firenze, Italy. We conducted the extractions and PCR
setups in an isolated, ancient DNA laboratory usually used for animal DNA analysis,
and obtained multiple short sequences from each pill. Many of these sequences could
be aligned by “blast” comparisons to sequences on Genbank. Some sequences turned
out to be artifacts or of bacterial, human or other contaminant origin, but most
appropriately matched Angiosperm sequences. In total we found sequences reflecting
more than ten different types of plants. We obtained mostly replicated evidence
(multiple extractions, PCRs and different gene regions) of Hibiscus, Apium (celery), a
bean, an aster, pepper, Persea, alfalfa and other taxa, although in some cases
resolution of exact taxa could not be achieved because of short length of sequence
reads. Nearly all of the sequences we obtained could not be ruled out as items that
would potentially be found in pharmaceuticals from this period and region based on
historical documentation.

Admittedly I did not read the comments, but I did read the OP. Let me just say, this is practically (not quite) a non-story. Where I come from at least, it's general knowledge that pills have existed almost as long as mankind. I mean, that's what you get when you leave a pot of healing tea on the stove and forget about it. Right now I am reading the Journey To The West novels from ancient China and they mention pills by name quite a few times. Also, I'm recording an audio version of them, e-mail or u2u me if you want a copy, BTW. Point being, pills are obviously ancient tech, because anything which is heated too long, even if it's not meant as medicine, becomes a powder, and because you would never give someone all the powder at once, pills must have been in use for thousands of years.
edit to add: I know we aren't supposed to advertise here, but of course I would never offer intellectual work for money and there is no website or other web presence of this "artwork". Just a reasonable aside.

26-03-2020 om 01:00 geschreven door peter

Beware of giant space rocks.

Snatching a piece of asteroid Bennu was supposed to be &mdash well, not easy, but certainly manageable: scope out the space rock, find some flat spots, swoop down at one, come back home.

But when NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft arrived at Bennu in December 2018, the scientists and engineers on the mission realized that the asteroid was much, much rockier than they had expected. Like, boulders everywhere. Boulders as big as buildings. Boulders you do not want your fancy spacecraft to bang into.

OSIRIS-REx, which launched in 2016, has a lidar navigation system that would have allowed the spacecraft to recognize obstacles based on the echoes of a light beam the probe produced. But once the mission revealed Bennu's surface in all its rocky glory, scientists and engineers decided it was time to come up with something new.

An artist's depiction of how OSIRIS-REx will use Natural Feature Tracking to compare real-time images of the asteroid's surface to a bank of previous photos in order to steer itself to the sampling site. (Image credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona)

"Boulders as big as buildings. Boulders you do not want your fancy spacecraft to bang into."

The result is a process the team is calling Natural Feature Tracking, which relies on the massive image database that OSIRIS-REx has built up in the months since it arrived at Bennu and began taking images of the space rock from every angle possible.

As the probe embarks on a sampling attempt, it will begin taking still more such photos, which its computer system will automatically compare to the archived images showing the path it should be following. If those views don't line up, the spacecraft will automatically retreat for another attempt, rather than risk damage on the perilous surface.

If the system works as planned, it should boost OSIRIS-REx's accuracy: Whereas its lidar system was only designed for accuracy within a site 164 feet (50 meters) across, Natural Feature Tracking will be accurate enough to tackle a target area just 10% that size, NASA officials said in a statement.

Scientists on the OSIRIS-REx mission have selected two target sampling sites on Bennu, dubbed Nightingale and Osprey. The mission's window for sampling opens in late August in order to ensure that the spacecraft can leave Bennu next year. If all goes well, scientists should have their space rock on Earth in 2023.

Watch the video: Ancient Egyptian tomb opened for first time in 2,500 years (August 2022).