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Hamilton Fish was born in New York City. His father was a local politician and named his son after his friend, Alexander Hamilton. Fish graduated from Columbia College (later University) in 1827 and three years later was admitted to the New York bar.During the 1840s, Fish became active in Whig politics and served in the House of Representatives (1843-45) and later as New York's lieutenant governor (1847-49) and governor (1849-51).In 1851 Fish was elected to the U.S. He opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and also, somewhat reluctantly, became aligned with the Republican Party. During this critical period, Fish was clearly a moderate, expressing criticism of both abolitionist and extreme proslavery forces.During the Civil War, Fish served first as a member of a Defense Committee that cut red tape for the movement of soldiers and supplies, and later as a commissioner to investigate confinement conditions for prisoners of war in the South.In 1869, Fish accepted what was thought to be a temporary appointment as secretary of state under Grant. Settlement of the Alabama claims and the Virginius affair were his chief successes, while the Dominican Republic purchase was a defeat he silently welcomed. Beyond his efforts in foreign affairs, Fish was a constant force working in opposition to the corruption and excesses of the Grant administration.In 1877, Fish returned to private life where he long remained active in public affairs, in particular the continued development of Columbia College.
Hamilton Fish: An American Hero Smeared By British Intelligence
Born into a political family that included an officer of the American Revolution and Ulysses Grant’s Secretary of State, Hamilton Fish III (1888-1991) was bound to go places. In the 1912 election, he sided with Theodore Roosevelt over William Howard Taft and after serving as a Progressive member of the New York State Assembly, he went to war.
Officer in the Harlem Hellfighters
Fish had already been a Captain in the military by the time the United States entered war, and was assigned as an officer in the Harlem Hellfighters. There, he became aware of the plight of black Americans, especially when the locals and white soliders in Spartanburg, South Carolina, threatened violence against his troops. Fish instructed his troops to defend themselves if attacked. Ultimately, he was able to consult with the officers of other units and prevent an incident. As a Congressman, Fish would succeed in adding an amendment to the 1940 draft bill that prohibited racial discrimination in enlistments, a stepping stone to the eventual desegregation of the army. For his services in World War I, he was awarded the Silver Star, with the citation “…Constantly exposed to enemy machinegun and artillery fire, his undaunted courage and utter disregard for his own safety inspired the men of the regiment, encouraging them to determined attacks upon strong enemy forces. Under heavy enemy fire, he assisted in rescuing many wounded men and also directed and assisted in the laborious task of carrying rations over shell-swept areas to the exhausted troops” (Taylor).
In 1920, Fish was elected to Congress. During the 1920s, he was somewhat conservative but still at times voted to his Bull Moose roots. In 1922, he sponsored with Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge (R-Mass.) the Lodge-Fish Resolution, which endorsed the Balfour Declaration that called for a permanent home nation for Jews. That year he supported the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill, which if enacted would have established federal penalties for lynching. He would be a sponsor of another such measure in 1940. In 1930, Fish introduced a resolution to form a committee to investigate communism. As part of the committee’s activities, they investigated the ACLU as well as William Z. Foster, the head of CPUSA and the communist presidential candidate. The committee proved mostly unsuccessful in finding substantive evidence and in reporting its findings, the committee advocated granting the Justice Department more power to investigate communists and to strengthen immigration laws to keep communists out. Congress adopted none of these recommendations at the time, but forms of these recommendations would come to pass in the McCarran Internal Security Act in 1950 and the McCarran-Walter Immigration Act in 1952. Fish’s conservatism would grow after the 1932 election, as he came to oppose most measures pushed by the Roosevelt Administration and became one of its loudest critics, although not its most extreme: he supported Social Security and the federal minimum wage. As the country moved closer to war, he became ever more vocal on foreign policy. Although he was not the most extreme non-interventionist, he was the House’s most prominent and wielded some power as the ranking Republican on both the House Rules Committee and Foreign Affairs Committee.
The Campaign to Discredit Hamilton Fish
As the House’s leading opponent of American involvement in World War II, British Security Coordination engaged in an extensive and illegal intelligence campaign to paint Fish as a Nazi sympathizer. The BSC formed a front known as “Fight for Freedom”, and convinced numerous politicians to join, including Sen. Carter Glass (D-Va.) and New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia. Journalists eagerly cooperated with BSC: on October 21, 1940, columnists Drew Pearson and Robert S. Allen suggested that the Nazis subsidized Fish through inflated rents they paid for property, which was false but damaging: Fish’s margin of victory was cut by over half that election year. On August 28, 1941, Fight for Freedom accused Fish of permitting the distribution through his Congressional frank of an anti-Semitic tract from American fascist William Dudley Pelley, which included an advertisement for the anti-Semitic forgery The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Most newspapers didn’t carry the story, but the left-wing PM, which cooperated with BSC, did. FFF also claimed in a press release that Fish stated after he was reached by telephone on the matter that, “But it doesn’t bother me any…There’s been too much Jewism going around anyway…”(Mahl). Fish denied that he knew of or authorized the inclusion of the Pelley tract and his telling of the conversation differed from that of FFF. It is highly unlikely that Fish had authorized such inclusion or said what FFF alleged given his excellent past record on Jewish issues and the organization’s over-arching goal to destroy his political career. However, the issue of franked mail was not over for him.
Matters got worse for Fish on the subject when the Secretary-Treasurer for the Nazi propaganda front organization Islands for War Debts Committee, Prescott Dennett, learned that the feds were going to be raiding his offices. He had been engaging in a scheme to illegally use Congressional franks to distribute speeches by non-interventionist members of Congress to send them across the nation, making Congress into a propaganda machine. Dennett quickly transferred bags of illegally franked mail to Fish’s office (which refused to take the bags, leaving them outside) and the remainder to the America First Committee. PM’s headline on the subject read, “HAM FISH SNATCHES EVIDENCE WANTED IN U.S. NAZI HUNT” (Mahl). It turned out that Fish’s Chief of Staff, George Hill, had been collaborating with Dennett in this scheme. Hill was convicted of perjury as he lied under oath about whether he knew George Sylvester Viereck, Dennett’s boss and the leading Nazi propaganda agent in the U.S.
Unfortunately, Fish also aided in this effort himself by some actions that left a poor impression. First, he met with Nazi Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and offered to mediate on the issue of Danzig (a Polish city that was 95% German and had a majority Nazi senate) to which Ribbentrop refused. He then flew to Oslo in the Foreign Minister’s private plane (he apparently had no other way to get to a conference in the city). After stepping off the plane, he proclaimed Germany’s claims in Danzig to be “just”. That he socially knew George Sylvester Viereck also did not help him. Ultimately, the New York state Republican leadership under Governor Thomas E. Dewey tired of Fish’s continued non-interventionism and got him redistricted. Although he won a hard-fought primary in 1944, he lost reelection to centrist Republican Augustus W. Bennet. The worst that could be said for Fish was that he was careless with his associations in his cause to keep America out of foreign wars.
Fish used the remainder of his long life to pursue anti-communist causes and to try to set the record straight. In 1947, he opposed the Truman Administration’s Greek-Turkish Aid measure as imperialist and came to the conclusion that increased foreign commitments would draw the United States into war, which would prove all too correct in Vietnam. He wrote several books on the subject, including Tragic Deception (1983). Fish’s longevity was attributed to the “enormous pleasure” he took in the growth of American conservatism and Ronald Reagan’s presidency.
“Fish, Hamilton”. (2001). The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives.
Mahl, T.E. (1998). Desperate deception: British covert operations in the United States, 1939-44. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.
Taylor, B. (2018, October 8). Hamilton Fish III and the “Harlem Hell Fighters”. Warfare History Network.
Hamilton Fish was born on Aug. 3, 1808, in New York City. His father was a socially prominent lawyer and Federalist his mother was from the old Stuyvesant family. Fish graduated with highest honors from Columbia College in 1827 and was admitted to the bar in 1830. He entered politics as a Whig he was elected to Congress in 1842 and to the governorship in 1848. His administration expanded the New York canal system and established a statewide framework for public education. In 1851 he was elected to the U.S. Senate. Conservative in background and patrician in taste, he joined the upstart Republican party only after it was clear that the Whig party was dead beyond revival.
Fish was not known nationally when President U.S. Grant appointed him secretary of state in 1869. Fish accepted reluctantly but found the job to his liking and remained for the entire two terms. His influence helped rescue Grant's presidency from total failure.
Three major foreign policy problems confronted Fish during his tenure. The first was Grant's effort to annex Santo Domingo. Cool toward the project, Fish nevertheless set about loyally to carry out his superior's wishes. A treaty of annexation was concluded, but Charles Sumner, chairman of the Senate's Committee on Foreign Relations, blocked it. Fish was unsuccessful in mediating the quarrel between Sumner and Grant. Grant's lieutenants in the Senate deposed Sumner from his chairmanship. The annexation was defeated, but Fish emerged from the imbroglio with honor.
Fish's efforts to settle the Alabama Claims were more successful. These claims were damages demanded by the United States from Great Britain for the latter's negligence during the Civil War in allowing Confederate cruisers, especially the Alabama, to be built and supplied in England, in violation of British neutrality. The cruisers destroyed scores of American freighters during the war and all but drove the U.S. merchant marine from the seas. In addition, the North demanded reparations for other British actions during the war. Senator Sumner said at one point that the claims could be satisfied only by ceding Canada to the United States. Britain had no intention of acceding to any such extreme demands, and Fish intimated through diplomatic channels that a less extravagant settlement would be acceptable. A joint high commission met in Washington under Fish's watchful eye and negotiated the Treaty of Washington (1871), which provided for the arbitration of the Alabama Claims and of minor issues between the United States and Canada. The arbitration tribunal awarded the United States $15,500,000 in damages.
A Cuban insurrection was in process when Fish took office. He talked Grant out of issuing a recognition of rebel belligerency, which might have led to a conflict with Spain, and he tried unsuccessfully to work out a peace settlement between Spain and the revolutionaries. In 1873 the Virginius, a rebel-owned steamer with illegal American registry engaged in carrying arms, was captured by the Spanish, and 53 crewmen and passengers, including several Americans, were executed as pirates. The incident could have led to war, but again Fish cool-headedly negotiated a settlement, which included indemnities for the families of dead Americans and a Spanish promise (never fulfilled) to punish the officer responsible for the executions.
Fish retired from public life in 1877 and busied himself in civic and social affairs. He died in New York on Sept. 6, 1893.
Quiet End to a Political Dynasty Hamilton Fish Jr. Leaves Congress and Takes 150 Years of Family History
Late in the day, the last day of his long tenure on Capitol Hill, Hamilton Fish Jr. was still at his desk revising what was to have been his final speech in the House of Representatives, crossing out long passages and scribbling in new ones in favor of the global trade accord known as GATT. Then he kissed his wife and hurried off to the House floor.
In the visitors' gallery, Mary Ann Fish took a seat in the first row and scanned the crowd. When she finally saw her husband stand and move forward, she turned to her son, John Charles Knauss, and said with great feeling: "John Charles, do you know what this is? This is the last speech of 26 years."
But at just that moment, Speaker Tom Foley announced that the discussion period was over. Mr. Fish folded the speech, tucked it in his pocket and sat back down. Time had run out.
Later, he said he was not at all disappointed.
"I voted right and said my goodbyes," he said, and again kissed his wife and announced a craving for French food. Plenty of his colleagues also cast their last votes that evening, but only Mr. Fish, who represents New York's 19th Congressional District in the Hudson Valley, was retiring a dynasty that stretches back 150 years.
And the Congressman, who is retiring for health reasons at 68, feels certain that he would have kept the seat in the family if only his son, who would have been the fifth Hamilton Fish in Congress, had not insisted on running as a Democrat.
"It would have been a piece of cake," he said. "Hands down. I tried to convince him he could become a progressive Republican, but after about five years, you give up on things like that."
Even so, Mr. Fish said: "I was surprised he wasn't elected as a Democrat. Any other year he would have been."
This being an extraordinary year, however, Mr. Fish spent the better part of a recent morning introducing another Republican, Sue Kelly, as his replacement.
He had a few tips for such newcomers:
First, never, ever put anyone who calls your office on hold.
"Nine other people will get on the line," he said. "And there's nothing more frustrating than calling your own office and being put on hold."
And foremost, embrace sleep deprivation as a life style and advise your staff to follow suit.
"My advice to Mrs. Kelly," he said, "is to bust a gut for the first two years if she wants to be returned."
It also occurred to Mr. Fish that there might be another potential pitfall.
"For a freshman, there is a great deal of testing going on, and I must tell Mrs. Kelly about that," said Mr. Fish, who is both straightforward and without false modesty. "They'll compare her to me."
Indeed, his record is substantial and his reputation enviable in the district, where he has a home in Millbrook. He has been the ranking member on the House Judiciary Committee and was among the first Republicans on that committee to break party ranks in impeachment proceedings against President Richard M. Nixon.
An outspoken advocate for human rights, he worked on behalf of Soviet Jews to change immigration laws. He was considered a major player in the passage of legislation like the 1982 Voting Rights Act Extension, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which provided monetary damages for women and minorities in cases of intentional employment discrimination.
"For all these years, Ham Fish has been the Republican leader in the House on civil rights," said Ralph G. Neas, executive director of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, who said that many of the nearly two dozen civil rights bills passed in the 80's would not have become law without him. "He has a record that's legendary."
But apparently, even a legend needs a break.
"I'm enjoying the new-found freedom of not having to be so damn enthusiastic about everything," Mr. Fish said, laughing, as the Delta Shuttle from Washington landed in New York. "Like, 'Oh, you're a senior citizen on Social Security? You don't say!' Like you've never heard such a story before."
Which is not to say he has not been happy to help constituents when he could.
"Youɽ be surprised how earthlings shake in their boots merely from a letter on congressional stationery," he said.
His family has considerable practice in the art of making them shake.
An ancestor, Nicholas Fish, began a family tradition by naming his son after his Army pal Alexander Hamilton, and the first of four Hamilton Fishes went to Congress in 1843. That first Hamilton Fish was also Governor of New York and Secretary of State under President Ulysses S. Grant. The second was also Speaker of the State Assembly.
And his forebears were not only prominent, but flamboyant. His father, the third Hamilton Fish in Congress, was famous for opposing communism and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and was voted out of office because he resisted the United States' entry into World War II. He publicly denounced his son's efforts to impeach Nixon, called his grandson a leftist ruined by Harvard, the familial alma mater, and announced to guests at his third wedding, at 87, that the Fish men had a particular talent for marrying well.
Congress has changed dramatically since Mr. Fish's father was able to join his family for dinner every night. Even when Mr. Fish got the job in 1968, defeating a future Watergate burglar, G. Gordon Liddy, in the primary and John S. Dyson, a deputy mayor of New York, in the general election, the Federal Government was smaller, he says, so the demands on members were not nearly so great. And despite what the public may believe, Mr. Fish said, there was actually far less attention to ethical questions in his early years in the House.
In those days, a sort of Congressional Welcome Wagon matched freshmen with more experienced representatives. Mr. Fish and his wife were placed under the wing of George and Barbara Bush.
"Theyɽ tell you the good places to live, where to get your dry cleaning done, and so on," he said, adding that while he was exceedingly fond of Mr. Bush, he did feel that as President, he was terribly insulated.
His favorite chief executive, he said, was Gerald Ford, explaining, "He came from the House, he was easy to get along with and had a big heart."
Over the years, Mr. Fish said, he has been sorry to see Washington increasingly portrayed as a center of crime and corruption, and wonders that anyone wants to run for Congress anymore, or live in what he still considers a perfectly delightful town, despite having his home burglarized on one occasion and another time being robbed at gunpoint.
(A decade ago, he said, he was climbing into his Pinto when approached by a nice-looking man in a jogging outfit who pulled out a revolver and asked for his wallet. But when he explained that he simply couldn't hand over irreplaceable 20-year-old photos, the mugger was willing to accept cash only.)
On the last day the House was in session, Mr. Fish turned a meeting of New York's Republican delegation over to Representative Benjamin A. Gilman of the neighboring 20th district, who called him a role model. He got his final $10 haircut from the House barber, had lunch in the House dining room, asked for an update on several constituent problems and did some work in his office, where boxes were stacked to the ceiling.
"There used to be paintings of four generations of Hamilton Fishes on the walls," he said, nodding in the direction of a vast bare space. Now there is a small mountain of cardboard to be moved to make room for the next resident of this prime piece of congressional real estate.
"And I've known I was retiring since March," he said with a shudder. "Imagine the poor slob who didn't know he was leaving and was defeated."
Mr. Fish was given a diagnosis of lung cancer in 1982 and a bone scan last February showed prostate cancer, which he says is in remission.
"My decision was based entirely on my health," he said, adding that calls to his district offices have since dropped off dramatically. "People said, 'Poor guy, I'm not going to bother him,' and that's not good. I don't need radiation, no chemo, no follow-up, but the statistics are that within three years, I won't have the vitality, so I wouldn't want to stay on."
Now, he says, he is working with Governor-elect George E. Pataki's transition team, and interviewing with law firms in Washington and Poughkeepsie. He won't be around to find out what it feels like to be a member of the majority, but he said that he was probably better suited to the less confrontational, more pragmatic political style of a minority leader.
"I'm not a confrontational person, so I don't know if I would have been a more successful person," as a member of the majority, he said, mulling it for a moment. "I doubt it."
About Hamilton Fish, 26th US Secretary of State
Hamilton Fish served as the 16th Governor of New York (1849-50), United States Senator (1851-57) and Secretary of State of the United States (1869-1877)
Fish was born at what is now known as the Stuyvesant𠄿ish House in Greenwich Village, New York City, to Nicholas Fish and Elizabeth Stuyvesant (a great-great-granddaughter of New Amsterdam's Peter Stuyvesant), and his parents named him after their friend Alexander Hamilton. Nicholas Fish (1758) was a leading Federalist politician and notable figure of the American Revolutionary War. Hamilton Fish married Julia Kean (a descendant of a New Yorker who was a New Jersey governor, William Livingston) in 1836. They would have three sons and five daughters, and multiple notable relatives.
Fish graduated from Columbia College of Columbia University in 1827 and was admitted to the New York bar in 1830, practicing briefly with William Beach Lawrence. He served as commissioner of deeds for the city and county of New York from 1832 through 1833, and was an unsuccessful candidate for New York State Assembly in 1834.
As a member of the Whig party, Fish was elected to the House of Representatives, defeating Democrat John McKeon and serving in the 28th Congress from New York's 6th District between 1843 and 1845. After losing his bid for re-election, he returned to private practice as a lawyer. He was the Whig candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York in 1846, but was defeated by Democrat Addison Gardiner who had been endorsed by the Anti-Rent Party. Gardiner was elected in May 1847 a judge of the New York Court of Appeals and vacated the office of lieutenant governor. Fish was then in November 1847 elected to fill the vacancy, and was Lieutenant Governor in 1848.
In November 1848, he was elected Governor of New York, defeating John A. Dix and Reuben H. Walworth, and served from January 1, 1849, to December 31, 1850.
On March 19, 1851, Fish was elected a U.S. Senator from New York, and he took his seat on December 1. In the United States Senate, he was a member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations until the end of his term on March 4, 1857. He was a Republican for the latter part of his term and was part of a moderately anti-slavery faction. He opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. At the expiration of his term, he traveled with his family to Europe and remained there until shortly before the opening of the American Civil War, when he returned to begin actively campaigning for the election of Abraham Lincoln.
In 1861 and 1862 he was associated with John A. Dix, William M. Evarts, William E. Dodge, A.T. Stewart, John Jacob Astor and other New York men on the Union Defence Committee, which (from April 22, 1861, to April 30, 1862) co-operated with the New York City government in the raising and equipping troops, and disbursed more than $1 million for the relief of New York volunteers and their families.
He was also appointed in 1862 to serve with Edward Raymond Ames to visit the Union Army prisoners being held in the Confederate States of America capital in Richmond, Virginia. The Confederate government, however, refused to allow the commission to enter the city.
Hamilton Fish in his elder years.He also served as Secretary of State between March 17, 1869 and March 12, 1877 under Ulysses S. Grant. He was Grant's longest-serving Cabinet officer.
He conducted the negotiations with Great Britain which resulted in the Treaty of Washington of 1871, under which the Alabama claims and the San Juan Boundary Dispute (concerning the Oregon boundary line) were referred to arbitration. He also negotiated the reciprocity treaty of 1875 with the Kingdom of Hawaii.
In 1871 Fish presided at the peace conference at Washington between Spain and the allied republics of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia, which resulted in a general truce between those countries.
It was chiefly due to his restraint and moderation that a satisfactory settlement of the Virginius Affair was reached by the United States and Spain in 1873.
Within the Department of State, he promoted testing job applicants to see if they were truly qualified for duty at a consulate.
After leaving the Cabinet, he returned to the law and managing his real estate in New York City.
He died at Glen Clyffe, his estate near Garrison, New York, in Putnam County, New York, in the Hudson River Valley, and is buried in Garrison at St. Philip's Church-in-the-Highlands Cemetery.
The Newburgh-Beacon Bridge on I-84 across the Hudson river is named after him.
The Hamilton Fish Park Pool on the corners of Pitt St. and E. Houston St. in New York City is named after him.
Vice-president general of the Society of the Cincinnati from 1848 to 1854, president general from 1854 until his death
Appointed by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln as one of the board of commissioners for the relief and exchange of Union prisoners of war in the South
President of the New York Historical Society from 1867 to 1869 Served as a trustee of Columbia University for 53 years (1840, 1851), and as chairman of the board of trustees from 1859 until his death in 1893
Served as president of the Union League Club from 1879 to 1881.
Acted as a trustee of both the Lenox Library and the Astor Library, which were later shaped into the New York Public Library
He had a son, a grandson and a great-grandson (all named Hamilton Fish) serve in the U.S. House of Representatives for New York:
Son Hamilton Fish II (1849) Grandson Hamilton Fish III (1888) Great-grandson Hamilton Fish IV (1926)
His great-great grandson Hamilton Fish V ran for Congress in 1988 and 1994 (to succeed his retiring father) but lost. With other investors, Hamilton Fish V purchased The Nation out of bankruptcy in 1977, and sold it in 1995, but remains connected to the foundation. He is also an adviser to George Soros.
Another son Stuyvesant Fish was an important railroad executive.
Another son, Nicholas Fish II, was a U.S. diplomat, who was appointed second secretary of legation at Berlin in 1871, became secretary in 1874, and was chargé d'affaires at Berne in 1877, and minister to Belgium in 1882, after which he engaged in banking in New York City.
Nicholas's son Hamilton Fish, an 1895 graduate of Columbia College of Columbia University, saw service in The Spanish-American War as one of the storied Rough Riders. He was the first member of that regiment to be killed in action, at the Battle of Las Guasimas, Cuba.
Nephew Stuyvesant Fish Morris, physician from New York.
Grandnephew Hamilton F. Kean, US Senator from New Jersey.
Great-grandnephew Thomas Kean, Governor of New Jersey.
He is not related to infamous child killer Albert Fish. Albert was born Hamilton, being named after him.
Albert Fish’s Other Heinous Crimes
Sing Sing Prison Museum Albert Fish was held at New York’s Sing Sing Prison before he was executed by electrocution.
The Grace Budd murder was by far the most infamous of Fish’s crimes. But two other murders were linked to him after his arrest. Unsurprisingly, they’re just as gruesome.
According to Crime Museum, Albert Fish is believed to be responsible for the murder of a 4-year-old boy named Billy Gaffney. Billy had disappeared while playing with a neighbor in Brooklyn on February 11, 1927. That child would later tell police that the “boogey man” took Billy.
The 3-year-old boy described this “boogey man” as a slender, elderly man with gray hair and a gray mustache. At first, cops didn’t take the child seriously. But when they searched all over the neighborhood with no clues, they finally realized he had been abducted. He was never seen again.
But after Fish’s arrest, a motorman on a Brooklyn trolley line came forward to identify him as a “nervous old man” he saw on the same day Billy had disappeared. Apparently, the old man was trying to quiet a little boy sitting next to him on the trolley who was crying for his mother. The man then dragged the little boy off of the trolley.
I took tools, a good heavy cat-of-nine tails. Home made. Short handle. Cut one of my belts in half, slit these halves in six strips about 8 inches long. I whipped his bare behind till the blood ran from his legs. I cut off his ears — nose — slit his mouth from ear to ear. Gouged out his eyes. He was dead then. I stuck the knife in his belly and held my mouth to his body and drank his blood.
Although no one was ever able to find Billy’s remains, people were able to locate the body of Fish’s third confirmed victim relatively quickly.
Bettmann/Getty Images Fish was said to have smiled as he confessed to his crimes. March 12, 1935.
In 1924, a young boy named Francis McDonnell vanished while playing with his brother and a group of friends on Staten Island. His body was found in the woods shortly thereafter. He had been strangled by his own suspenders.
Shortly before Albert Fish was put to death, he confessed to being the one who lured Francis into the woods, later assaulting and strangling him. He admitted that he was ready to dismember the boy — but he thought he heard someone approaching and fled the scene.
From Fighters to Beautiful, Fancy Aquarium Fish
Determined to make these fish even fancier, they have also been bred over the years to have impressive tail fins. The most common of these is the ‘Veil Tail’, where the tail arches upwards before draping down to represent a veil.
The ‘Crown Tail’ betta has a fanned tail of separated tips, quite similar to a spikey Mohawk hairstyle.
A ‘Half-Moon Tail’ has a 180-degree tail spread with straight edges, resembling a half moon.
Another fancy type of tail is the ‘Rose Tail’, which looks like flower petals gradually overlapping each other.
The ‘Feather Tail’ variety looks very similar to the ‘Rose Tail’ variety, but the fanned tail has delicate, feathered ends.
These are the most common types of betta tails, however other varieties include the ‘Double Tail’, ‘Spade Tail’, ‘Delta’, ‘Super Delta’ and many others.
Expanding to a Global Level
In 1968, Clark Hamilton founded an identical company in Bonaduz, Switzerland to enable production of these syringes for the European scientific community. Today Hamilton Bonaduz AG continues to manufacture, design, and create new products in concert with Hamilton Company in the U.S. In 1970 the company in Whittier, California was relocated to Reno, Nevada where it remains today. The two companies work in concert today with competence centers driving innovation in a wide array of products. Starting in 1974 the management was turned over to Steve Hamilton, and with the support of his brothers, continues to drive the companies to this day. The business however has grown not only exponentially in sales, but also into automated liquid handling of chemistries that has benefited the world by enabling the first automated screening of whole blood for AIDs and hepatitis, as well as an unlimited array of other solutions that continue to need automation on a microliter level.
Today the company employs over 2,500 employees and it is growing. Hamilton on a global level is the largest automated liquid handling company in the world. Along the way, many new technologies have emerged in the areas of sensor and measuring technology as well as the founding of a medical company. Hamilton Medical AG, as a separate business, produces world class critical care ventilators with cutting edge technology enabling patient respiratory monitoring for real time ventilator adjustments, providing a superior level of patient care. Hamilton Medical AG and its subsidiary Hamilton Medical, Inc. now are number one in the critical care field of ventilation.
Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC08878.0269 Author/Creator: Bureau Engraving & Printing Place Written: s.l. Type: Engraving Date: 1861-1877 Pagination: 1 print : b&w 15.3 x 20.3 cm.
One engraving entitled "Hamilton Fish" circa 1861-1877. Portrait of Hamilton Fish. Engraver unknown.
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Grabar on Zinn
Most of Zinn’s bad history comes from the fact that he was willing to falsify American history to promote communism, writes Grabar. “Zinn wanted to abandon ‘disinterested scholarship’ to effect ‘a revolution in the academy,’ and ultimately in the larger world,” writes Grabar. Zinn constantly chose ideology and propaganda over a true telling of history.
Zinn continuously broke the standards of the American Historical Association, misrepresenting sources, omitting critical information, falsifying evidence, and even plagiarizing. Grabar asks a good question at the end of her book: Would Zinn’s defenders support distorted history for another purpose? Although most would answer no, there are still many who aren’t willing to decry Zinn’s book.
Grabar sums up Zinn’s book like this: “The stories he put into A People’s History of the United States weren’t balanced factual history, but crude morality tales designed to destroy Americans’ patriotism and turn them into radical leftists.”
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