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Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1997 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1997 - History



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Major Event/ Sports /Nobel Prizes/Pulitzer Prizes/Academy/ Popular Movies/ Popular Books /Popular Television Shows/ Popular Music/ Grammy Awards/

  • Major Events of 1997

    • Great Britain turns over Hink Kong to the Chinese after 99 year lease expires
    • Mars pathfinder lands

    Sports

    NBA: Chicago Bulls vs. Utah Jazz Series: 4-2
    NCAA Football: Michigan & Nebraska Record: 12-0-0 & 13-0-0
    Heisman Trophy: Charles Woodson, michigan, DB-WR points: 1,815
    Stanley Cup: Detroit Red Wings vs. Philadelphia Flyers Series: 4-0
    Super Bowl XXXI: Green Bay Packers vs. New England Patriots Score: 35-21
    US Open Winner: Ernis Els Score: 276 Course: Congressional CC Location: Bethesda, MD
    World Series: Florida Marlins vs. Cleveland Indians Series: 4-3

    Poular Music

    1."Candle In The Wind" ... Elton John
    2. "You Were Meant For Me/ Foolish Games" ... Jewel
    3. "I'll Be Missing You" ... Puff Daddy & Faith Evans
    4. "Un-Break My Heart" ... Toni Braxton
    5. "Can't Nobody Hold Me Down" ... Puff Daddy
    6. "I Believe I Can Fly" ... R. Kelly
    7." Don't Let Go" ... En Vogue
    8. "Return of The Mack" ... Mark Morrison
    9. "How Do I Live" ... LeAnn Rimes
    10. "Wannabe" ... Spice Girls

    Popular Movies

    1. Men In Black
    2. The Lost World: Jurassic Park
    3. Liar Liar
    4. Air Force One
    5. Star Wars (reissue)
    6. My Best Friend's Wedding
    7. Titani
    c 8. Face/Off
    9. Batman & Robin
    10. George of the Jungle

    Music & the Grammy's

    Best Record: "Sunny Came Home" ... Shawn Colvin
    Best Song: "Sunny Came Home" ... Shawn Colvin
    Best Album: "Time Out of Mind" ... Bob Dylan
    Male Vocalist:Elton John ... "Candle in the Wind 1997"
    Female Vocalist: Sarah McLachlan ... "Building a Mystery"

    1."Candle In The Wind" ... "Return Of The Mack" ... Spice Girls

    Movies & Academy Awards

    Best Picture: "Titanic""
    Best Director: James Cameron ... "Titanic"
    Best Actor: Jack Nicholas ... "As Good As it Gets"
    Best Actress: Helen Hunt ... "As Good As it Gets"

    1. Titanic
    8. George of the Jungle


    • – the Green Bay Packers (NFC) won 35–21 over the New England Patriots (AFC)
      • Location: Superdome
      • Attendance: 72,301
      • MVP: Desmond Howard, KR (Green Bay)
      • The Florida Gators won 52–20 over the Florida State Seminoles to win the national championship
        • Women's all–around champion: Svetlana Khorkina, Russian Federation
        • Women's team competition champion: Romania
        • Women's vault champion: Simona Amânar, Romania
        • Women's uneven bars champion: Svetlana Khorkina, Russian Federation
        • Women's balance beam champion: Gina Gogean, Romania
        • Women's floor exercise champion: Gina Gogean, Romania
        • Men's all-around champion: Ivan Ivankov, Belarus
        • Men's team competition champion: China
        • Men's vault champion: Sergei Fedorchenko, Kazakhstan
        • Men's still rings champion: Yuri Chechi, Italy
        • Men's floor exercise champion: Alexei Nemov, Russian Federation
        • Men's parallel bars champion: Zhang Jinjing, China
        • Men's pommel horse champion: Valery Belenky, Germany
        • Men's horizontal bar champion: Jani Tanskanen, Finland
            join the league
            • Adelaide Crows win Grand Final for the first time – downing St. Kilda on the last day in September
            • June 12 – Interleague play begins in baseball, ending a 126-year tradition of separating the major leagues until the World Series. – Florida Marlins won 4 games to 3 over the Cleveland Indians. The Series MVP was Liván Hernández, Florida
                win 84–79 in overtime over the Kentucky Wildcats. This is Arizona's first NCAA title in men's basketball.
                earn their second repeat of the decade as they beat the Utah Jazz 4 games to 2 (see Steve Kerr).
                defeat the New York Liberty in one game playoff series.
                defeated the South East Melbourne Magic 2–1 in the best–of–three final series.
              • January 18 – Oscar De La Hoya maintained his World Boxing Council super lightweight title in with a 12–round unanimous decision over Miguel Ángel González in Las Vegas, Nevada.
              • May 13 – death of Eduard Zakharov (22), Russian boxer
              • June 28 – Mike Tyson bites off a piece of the ear of Evander Holyfield in the third round of their WBA Heavyweight title fight, getting disqualified by referee Mills Lane.
              • July 9 – Mike Tyson's boxing license is suspended for at least a year and he is fined $3 million for biting Evander Holyfield's ear in a televised match.
              • October 18 to October 26 – World Amateur Boxing Championships held in Budapest, Hungary
                – Australia win the six test series 3–2 – Bangladesh – Australia beat New Zealand by five wickets (England and Wales) won by Glamorgan
              • Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race Champion
                • Martin Buser won with lead dogs: Blondie & Fearless
                  • Men's champion: Elvis Stojko, Canada
                  • Ladies' champion: Tara Lipinski, United States
                  • Pairs' champions: Mandy Wötzel & Ingo Steuer, Germany
                  • Ice dancing champions: Oksana Grishuk / Evgeny Platov, Russia
                    • All-Ireland Camogie Champion: Cork
                    • National Camogie League: Cork
                      – Kerry 0–13 died Mayo 1–7 – Kerry 3–7 died Cork 1–8
                • All-Ireland Senior Football Champion: Monaghan
                • National Football League: Waterford
                  – Clare 0–20 died Tipperary 2–13 –
                  – Tiger Woods – Ernie Els – Justin Leonard – Davis Love III money leader – Tiger Woods – $2,066,833 – Tiger Woods – Stewart Cink money leader – Hale Irwin – $2,343,364 – Europe won 14½–13½ over the United States in team golf. creates an uproar with his record 12-shot victory at the Masters, and becomes the first Masters winner of African-American descent. He set the record for the lowest to-par score of −18, and the lowest 72-hole score of 272. He also rises to the No. 1 ranking on June 15, in only his 42nd week as a professional – the fastest ascent to the No. 1 ranking.
                • The Grand National Saturday meeting was abandoned after two coded bomb threats were received, causing evacuation of the course. The race was eventually run on the following Monday.
                • Australia – Melbourne Cup won by Might And Power
                • Canada – Queen's Plate won by Awesome Again
                • Dubai – Dubai World Cup won by Singspiel
                • France – Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe won by Peintre Célèbre
                • Ireland – Irish Derby Stakes won by Desert King
                • Japan – Japan Cup won by Pilsudski :
                    – Entrepreneur – Benny the Dip – Silver Patriarch
                • :
                    – Silver Charm – Silver Charm – Touch Gold
                  World Thoroughbred Championships:
                    – Skip Away – Ajina – Favorite Trick – Countess Diana – Spinning World – Elmhurst – Chief Bearhart
                  as the NHL's leading scorer during the regular season: Mario Lemieux, Pittsburgh Penguins for the NHL's Most Valuable Player: Dominik Hašek of the Buffalo Sabres – Detroit Red Wings win 4 games to 0 over the Philadelphia Flyers
                  • Men's champion: Canada defeated Sweden
                  • Junior Men's champion: Finland defeated Russia
                  • Women's champion: Canada defeated the United States
                  • The Rochester Knighthawks defeat the Buffalo Bandits 15–12 to win the Major Indoor Lacrosse League championship
                    • The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is formed from the Major Indoor Lacrosse League (MILL), with the decision to move from league ownership of all teams to individual team ownership.
                    • Men's champion: England defeats the Czech Republic
                    • Women's champion: England defeats Wales

                    The following is a list of major noteworthy MMA events during 1997 in chronological order.

                    The event featured one kickboxing bout between Branko Cikatić and Ralph White.


                    Stanley B. Prusiner

                    M y history is not atypical of many Americans: born in the midwest, educated in the East, and now living in the West. My early years were shared between Des Moines, Iowa and Cincinnati, Ohio. Shortly after I was born on May 28, 1942 in Des Moines, my father, Lawrence, was drafted into the United States Navy. I was named for my father’s younger brother who died of Hodgkin’s disease at the age of 24. We moved to Boston briefly where my father enrolled in Naval officer training school before being sent to the south Pacific. He served as a communications officer for the remainder of World War II on an island called Eniwetok where the first hydrogen bomb was detonated a decade later.

                    During my father’s absence, my mother, Miriam, and I lived in Cincinnati where her mother, Mollie Spigel, also lived. Prior to moving to Cincinnati, Mollie had lived in Norfolk, Virginia, where she raised three children after her husband Benjamin was killed at age 50 in a traffic accident. Besides many special memories of my maternal grandmother, I have many fond reminiscences of my paternal grandfather, Ben, who emigrated to the United States in 1896 as a young boy from Moscow. He grew up in Sioux City, Iowa, as did my father with many other Russian Jews. Shortly after the end of World War II, we returned to Des Moines where I attended primary school and my brother, Paul, was born. In 1952, we moved back to Cincinnati with the hope that my father would be able to find a much better job as an architect. In Cincinnati, he practiced architecture for the next 25 years, which enabled him to provide a very comfortable home for his family.

                    During my time at Walnut Hills High School, I studied Latin for five years, which was to help me immensely later in the writing of scientific papers. But I found high school rather uninteresting and was most fortunate to be accepted by the University of Pennsylvania where I majored in Chemistry.

                    The intellectual environment of the University of Pennsylvania was extraordinary – there were so many internationally renowned scholars who were invariably receptive to the intrusions of undergraduate students even before the days of student evaluations of the faculty. The small size of the undergraduate student body undoubtedly contributed to the accessibility of the faculty. Besides numerous science courses, I had the opportunity to study philosophy, the history of architecture, economics, and Russian history in courses taught by extraordinarily knowledgeable professors. Although I was among the smallest of the heavyweight crew team members and thus had no chance of rowing in the varsity boat, I greatly enjoyed the many hours that I spent at this wonderful sport.

                    During the summer of 1963 between my junior and senior years, I began a research project on hypothermia in the Department of Surgery with Sidney Wolfson. I quickly became fascinated by the project and continued working on it throughout my senior year. I decided to remain at Penn for Medical School largely because of the wonderful experience of doing research with Sidney Wolfson. During the second year of medical school, I decided to ask Britton Chance if he would allow me to study the surface fluorescence of brown adipose tissue in Syrian golden hamsters as they arose from hibernation. Chance had reported that the surface fluorescence of other organs reflected the oxidation-reduction state of those tissues. As anticipated, large changes in the fluorescence of brown fat were found during non-shivering thermogenesis.

                    My research on brown fat allowed me to spend much of the fourth year of medical school at the Wenner-Gren Institute in Stockholm working with Olov Lindberg on the metabolism of isolated brown adipocytes. This was an exciting time and I began to consider seriously a career in biomedical research. Early in 1968, I returned to Philadelphia to complete my medical studies and to contemplate my options. The previous spring, I had been given a position at the NIH once I completed an internship in medicine. It was the height of the Vietnam war with 500,000 young Americans trying to control the spread of Communism in southeast Asia. But I was facing an internship at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) that would require me to work every other night for an entire year, a prospect about which I was not enthusiastic. The privilege of serving in the US Public Health Service at the NIH clearly outweighed the unpleasant prospects of an internship. Although the workload was awesome, I managed to survive because San Francisco was such a nice place to live. During that year, I met my wife, Sandy Turk, who was teaching mathematics to high school students.

                    At the NIH, I worked in Earl Stadtman’s laboratory where I studied glutaminases in E. coli. My three years at the NIH were critical in my scientific education. I learned an immense amount about the research process: developing assays, purifying macromolecules, documenting a discovery by many approaches, and writing clear manuscripts describing what is known and what remains to be investigated. As the end of my time at the NIH began to near, I examined postdoctoral fellowships in neurobiology but decided a residency in Neurology was a better route to developing a rewarding career in research. The residency offered me an opportunity to learn about both the normal and abnormal nervous system.

                    In July 1972, I began a residency at the University of California San Francisco in the Department of Neurology. Two months later, I admitted a female patient who was exhibiting progressive loss of memory and difficulty performing some routine tasks. I was surprised to learn that she was dying of a “slow virus” infection called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which evoked no response from the body’s defenses. Next, I learned that scientists were unsure if a virus was really the cause of CJD since the causative infectious agent had some unusual properties. The amazing properties of the presumed causative “slow virus” captivated my imagination and I began to think that defining the molecular structure of this elusive agent might be a wonderful research project. The more that I read about CJD and the seemingly related diseases – kuru of the Fore people of New Guinea and scrapie of sheep – the more captivated I became.

                    Over the next two years I completed an abbreviated residency while reading every paper that I could find about slow virus diseases. In time, I developed a passion for working on these disorders. As I plotted out a course of action, the task became more and more daunting. The tedious, slow, and very expensive assays in mice for the scrapie agent had restricted progress and I had no clever idea about how to circumvent the problem. I did think that after working with the scrapie agent for some time that I might eventually be able to develop such an assay.

                    Since both Sandy and I liked living in San Francisco, I accepted the offer of an assistant professor position from Robert Fishman, the Chair of Neurology, and began to set up a laboratory to study scrapie in July 1974. Although many people cautioned me about the high risk of studies on scrapie due to the assay problems, such warnings did not dull my enthusiasm. To gain a base of research support from the NIH, I initially wrote grant proposals on glutamate metabolism in the choroid plexus. Such proposals were dull but were readily funded because I had worked on glutaminases earlier. Eventually, I managed to gain modest NIH support for my scrapie studies but this was not without considerable difficulty. To rebut the disapproval of my first NIH application on scrapie, I set up a collaboration with William Hadlow and Carl Eklund who were working at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Montana. They taught me an immense amount about scrapie and helped me initiate studies on the sedimentation behavior of the scrapie agent.

                    I had anticipated that the purified scrapie agent would turn out to be a small virus and was puzzled when the data kept telling me that our preparations contained protein but not nucleic acid. About this time, I was informed by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) that they would not renew their support and by UCSF that I would not be promoted to tenure. When everything seemed to be going wrong, including the conclusions of my research studies, it was the unwavering, enthusiastic support of a few of my closest colleagues that carried me through this very trying and difficult period. Fortunately, the tenure decision was reversed and I was able to continue my work. Although my work was never supported by HHMI again, I was extremely fortunate to receive much larger funding from the R. J. Reynolds Company through a program administered by Fred Seitz and Macyln McCarty and shortly thereafter from the Sherman Fairchild Foundation under the direction of Walter Burke. While the vast majority of my funding always came from the NIH, these private sources were crucial in providing funds for the infrastructure which was the thousands of mice and hamsters that were mandatory.

                    As the data for a protein and the absence of a nucleic acid in the scrapie agent accumulated, I grew more confident that my findings were not artifacts and decided to summarize that work in an article that was eventually published in the spring of 1982. Publication of this manuscript, in which I introduced the term “prion”, set off a firestorm. Virologists were generally incredulous and some investigators working on scrapie and CJD were irate. The term prion derived from protein and infectious provided a challenge to find the nucleic acid of the putative “scrapie virus.” Should such a nucleic acid be found, then the word prion would disappear! Despite the strong convictions of many, no nucleic acid was found in fact, it is probably fair to state that Detlev Riesner and I looked more vigorously for the nucleic acid than anyone else.

                    While it is quite reasonable for scientists to be skeptical of new ideas that do not fit within the accepted realm of scientific knowledge, the best science often emerges from situations where results carefully obtained do not fit within the accepted paradigms. At times the press became involved since the media provided the naysayers with a means to vent their frustration at not being able to find the cherished nucleic acid that they were so sure must exist. Since the press was usually unable to understand the scientific arguments and they are usually keen to write about any controversy, the personal attacks of the naysayers at times became very vicious. While such scorn caused Sandy considerable distress, she and my two daughters, Helen and Leah, provided a loving and warm respite from the torrent of criticism that the prion hypothesis engendered. During the winter of 1983, I herniated a disc in my lumbar spine while skiing and this slowed the pace of my work for much of the year. After a laminectomy, I began swimming regularly, which brought relaxation and a much needed quiet time to my life.

                    Just prior to my back problem, the protein of the prion was found in my laboratory and the following year, a portion of the amino acid sequence was determined by Leroy Hood. With that knowledge, molecular biological studies of the prions ensued and an explosion of new information followed. I collaborated with Charles Weissmann on the molecular cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein (PrP) and with George Carlson and David Kingsbury on linking the PrP gene to the control of scrapie incubation time in mice. About the same time, we succeeded in producing antibodies that provided an extremely valuable tool that allowed us to discover the normal form of PrP. In a very important series of studies, the antibodies were used by Stephen DeArmond to study the pathogenesis of prion disease in transgenic mice. Steve brought the much needed talents of an outstanding neuropathologist to these studies. As more data accumulated, an expanding edifice in support of the prion concept was constructed. Ruth Gabizon dispersed prions into liposomes and purified scrapie infectivity on columns with PrP antibodies. Karen Hsiao discovered a mutation in the PrP gene that caused familial disease and reproduced the disease in transgenic mice while Michael Scott produced transgenic mice abrogating the prion species barrier and later artificial prions from chimeric PrP transgenes. Indeed, no experimental findings that might overturn the prion concept were reported from any laboratory. By the early 1990s, the existence of prions was coming to be accepted in many quarters of the scientific community, but the mechanism by which normal PrP was converted into the disease-causing form was still obscure. When Fred Cohen and I began to collaborate on PrP structural studies, I was again extremely fortunate. Fred brought an extraordinary set of skills in protein chemistry and computational biology to investigations of PrP structures.

                    As prions gained wider acceptance among scientists, I received many scientific prizes. The first major recognition of my work was accorded by neurologists with many other awards coming soon thereafter. But the most rewarding aspect of my work has been the numerous wonderful friends that I have made during an extensive series of collaborative studies. It has been a special privilege to work with so many talented scientists including numerous postdoctoral fellows and technical associates who have taught me so much. Besides the many collaborators who have contributed their scientific skills to advancing the study of prions, I have had many colleagues who have contributed indirectly to my work by being supportive of the special needs that such a project has demanded.

                    From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1997, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1998

                    This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate.


                    United Kingdom

                    The first successfully cloned mammal is revealed by the Roslin Institute.

                    More Information and Timeline for Dolly the sheep.

                    Scientists at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland announced that they had successfully cloned a sheep. The sheep, named Dolly, was born in July of the previous year but they had waited to announce the scientific breakthrough until February of 1997 when they could also publish their full research on the process. Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was put down in 2003 after suffering from health complications related to a progressive lung disease. Many people believed that the cloning of a sheep was a controversial step in genetic research, thinking it could lead to human cloning. Others heralded the breakthrough with the hope that it could lead to important medical discoveries.


                    Childhood and early activism

                    The daughter of an outspoken social activist and educator, Yousafzai was an excellent student. Her father—who established and administered the school she attended, Khushal Girls High School and College in the city of Mingora—encouraged her to follow in his path. In 2007 the Swat valley, once a vacation destination, was invaded by the TTP. Led by Maulana Fazlullah, the TTP began imposing strict Islamic law, destroying or shutting down girls’ schools, banning women from any active role in society, and carrying out suicide bombings. Yousafzai and her family fled the region for their safety, but they returned when tensions and violence eased.

                    On September 1, 2008, when Yousafzai was 11 years old, her father took her to a local press club in Peshawar to protest the school closings, and she gave her first speech—“How Dare the Taliban Take Away My Basic Right to Education?” Her speech was publicized throughout Pakistan. Toward the end of 2008, the TTP announced that all girls’ schools in Swat would be shut down on January 15, 2009. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) approached Yousafzai’s father in search of someone who might blog for them about what it was like to live under TTP rule. Under the name Gul Makai, Yousafzai began writing regular entries for BBC Urdu about her daily life. She wrote from January through the beginning of March of that year 35 entries that were also translated into English. Meanwhile, the TTP shut down all girls’ schools in Swat and blew up more than 100 of them.

                    In February 2009 Yousafzai made her first television appearance, when she was interviewed by Pakistani journalist and talk show host Hamid Mir on the Pakistan current events show Capital Talk. In late February the TTP, responding to an increasing backlash throughout Pakistan, agreed to a cease-fire, lifted the restriction against girls, and allowed them to attend school on the condition that they wear burkas. However, violence resurged only a few months later, in May, and the Yousafzai family was forced to seek refuge outside of Swat until the Pakistani army was able to push the TTP out. In early 2009 The New York Times reporter Adam Ellick worked with Yousafzai to make a documentary, Class Dismissed, a 13-minute piece about the school shutdown. Ellick made a second film with her, titled A Schoolgirl’s Odyssey. The New York Times posted both films on their Web site in 2009. That summer she met with the U.S. special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan, Richard Holbrooke, and asked him to help with her effort to protect the education of girls in Pakistan.

                    With Yousafzai’s continuing television appearances and coverage in the local and international media, it had become apparent by December 2009 that she was the BBC’s young blogger. Once her identity was known, she began to receive widespread recognition for her activism. In October 2011 she was nominated by human rights activist Desmond Tutu for the International Children’s Peace Prize. In December of that year she was awarded Pakistan’s first National Youth Peace Prize (later renamed the National Malala Peace Prize).


                    British physicist J.J. Thomson announces the discovery of electrons

                    On April 30, 1897, British physicist J.J. Thomson announced his discovery that atoms were made up of smaller components. This finding revolutionized the way scientists thought about the atom and had major ramifications for the field of physics. Though Thompson referred to them as "corpuscles," what he found is more commonly known today as the electron.

                    Mankind had already discovered electric current and harnessed it to great effect, but scientists had not yet observed the makeup of atoms. Thomson, a highly-respected professor at Cambridge, determined the existence of electrons by studying cathode rays. He concluded that the particles making up the rays were 1,000 times lighter than the lightest atom, proving that something smaller than atoms existed. Thomson likened the composition of atoms to plum pudding, with negatively-charged "corpuscles" dotted throughout a positively-charged field.

                    The plum pudding analogy was disproved by Ernest Rutherford, a student and collaborator of Thomson’s, in Thomson&aposs lab at Cambridge in 1910. Rutherford&aposs conclusion that the positive charge of an atom resides in its nucleus established the model of the atom as we know it today. In addition to winning his own Nobel Prize, Thomson employed six research assistants who went on to win Nobel Prizes in physics and two, including Rutherford, who won Nobel Prizes for chemistry. His son, George Paget Thomson, also won a Nobel Prize for his study of electrons. Combined with his own research, the network of atomic researchers Thomson cultivated gave humanity a new and detailed understanding of the smallest building-blocks of the universe.


                    Sporting Highlights for 1995

                    Here are the sporting highlights of the world of sport in 1995. Steffi Graf won three of the four tennis grand slam tournaments. Basketballer Michael Jordan was the Top Earner for 1995. Major events for this year include the Rugby World Cup, won by South Africa.

                    Miguel Indurain of Spain won the 82nd Tour de France, which was his fifth straight tour win. Thought three others have won the tour five times, he is the only person to win the event five times in consecutive years. The event witnessed an unfortunate accident in the 15th stage descent which resulted in the death of Fabio Casartelli. The 16th stage of the tour was raced non-competitively as a mark of respect.

                    Annika Sorenstam is as renowned a name in golf as Tiger Woods is and is regarded as the best women golfer of all-time. It all started with her first major win at U.S. Women's Open in 1995. She went on to win the event two more time for a total of 10 majors in her career.

                    Steffi Graf - one of women's tennis highest earners

                    Andre Agassi won the Australian Open defeating Pete Sampras for his second grand slam title. Steffi Graf, to whom Agassi would eventually get married to, won three grand slams that year, which had pretty much become a routine for her by then. Monica Seles made her comeback two years after the ugly stabbing incident and enjoyed decent success that year which was followed by the Australian Open win the following year.

                    George Foreman, who came back from retirement and became the oldest fighter, at 45, to ever to win the World Heavyweight Championship, lost both his WBA and IBF titles refusing to fight Tony Tucker and re-fight Axel Schulz.

                    Below is a timeline of some significant results in the world of sport for the year 1995.

                    Date Results
                    Jan Tennis Australia Open won by Andre Agassi and Mary Pierce
                    Feb Super Bowl held in Miami won by San Francisco
                    April Golf Masters won by Ben Crenshaw (his 2nd win)
                    May 25 - June 24 Rugby World Cup won by South Africa
                    May Tennis French Open won by Thomas Muster and Steffi Graf.
                    June Golf US Open won by Corey Pavin
                    July the Cycling Tour de France was won by Miguel Induráin
                    July Tennis Wimbledon won by Pete Sampras and Steffi Graf
                    July Golf British Open won by John Daly
                    July The women's world cup, held in Sweden, was won by Norway over Germany.
                    Aug Golf US PGA won by Steve Elkington
                    Sep Tennis US Open won by Pete Sampras and Steffi Graf
                    Oct The Baseball World Series won by Atlanta Braves

                    Please note that the dates for past events are not always known, and are sometimes just placed in the month that the current event is held. If no exact date is listed, then it is just an estimated month that it was held.

                    If you have a correction or know of events that should be included here, please let me know.


                    All Nobel Prizes

                    Between 1901 and 2020, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 603 times to 962 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 930 individuals and 25 organizations. Below, you can view the full list of Nobel Prizes and Nobel Laureates.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2020

                    Roger Penrose “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”

                    Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020

                    Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2020

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2020

                    Louise Glück “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal”.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2020

                    World Food Programme (WFP) “for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2020

                    Paul R. Milgrom and Robert B. Wilson “for improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019

                    “for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”

                    James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”

                    Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019

                    William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019

                    Peter Handke “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2019

                    Abiy Ahmed Ali “for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019

                    Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018

                    “for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics”

                    Arthur Ashkin “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems”

                    Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018

                    Frances H. Arnold “for the directed evolution of enzymes”

                    George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018

                    James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo
                    “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2018

                    Olga Tokarczuk “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2018

                    Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad
                    “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018

                    William D. Nordhaus “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis”

                    Paul M. Romer “for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017

                    Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne
                    “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017

                    Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson
                    “for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017

                    Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young
                    “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017

                    Kazuo Ishiguro
                    “who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2017

                    International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)
                    “for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2017

                    Richard H. Thaler
                    “for his contributions to behavioural economics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016

                    David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz
                    “for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016

                    Yoshinori Ohsumi
                    “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016

                    Bob Dylan
                    “for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2016

                    Juan Manuel Santos
                    “for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2016

                    Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström
                    “for their contributions to contract theory”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015

                    Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald
                    “for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015

                    William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura
                    “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

                    Tu Youyou
                    “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2015

                    Svetlana Alexievich
                    “for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2015

                    National Dialogue Quartet
                    “for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2015

                    Angus Deaton
                    “for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014

                    Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura
                    “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014

                    Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner
                    “for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

                    John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser
                    “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014

                    Patrick Modiano
                    “for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2014

                    Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai
                    “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2014

                    Jean Tirole
                    “for his analysis of market power and regulation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

                    François Englert and Peter W. Higgs
                    “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

                    Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel
                    “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

                    James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof
                    “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013

                    Alice Munro
                    “master of the contemporary short story”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2013

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

                    Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland
                    “for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

                    Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka
                    “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012

                    Mo Yan
                    “who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2012

                    European Union (EU)
                    “for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012

                    Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley
                    “for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

                    Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess
                    “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011

                    Dan Shechtman
                    “for the discovery of quasicrystals”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

                    Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann
                    “for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

                    Ralph M. Steinman
                    “for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011

                    Tomas Tranströmer
                    “because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2011

                    Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman
                    “for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011

                    Thomas J. Sargent and Christopher A. Sims
                    “for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

                    Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov
                    “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

                    Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki
                    “for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

                    Robert G. Edwards
                    “for the development of in vitro fertilization”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010

                    Mario Vargas Llosa
                    “for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2010

                    Liu Xiaobo
                    “for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2010

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

                    Charles Kuen Kao
                    “for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication”

                    Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith
                    “for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

                    Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak
                    “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009

                    Herta Müller
                    “who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2009

                    Barack H. Obama
                    “for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009

                    Elinor Ostrom
                    “for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”

                    Oliver E. Williamson
                    “for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

                    Yoichiro Nambu
                    “for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics”

                    Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa
                    “for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

                    Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien
                    “for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

                    Harald zur Hausen
                    “for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

                    Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier
                    “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008

                    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
                    “author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2008

                    Martti Ahtisaari
                    “for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008

                    Paul Krugman
                    “for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

                    Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg
                    “for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007

                    Gerhard Ertl
                    “for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

                    Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
                    “for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007

                    Doris Lessing
                    “that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2007

                    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.
                    “for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2007

                    Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson
                    “for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

                    John C. Mather and George F. Smoot
                    “for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

                    Roger D. Kornberg
                    “for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

                    Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello
                    “for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006

                    Orhan Pamuk
                    “who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2006

                    Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank
                    “for their efforts to create economic and social development from below”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2006

                    Edmund S. Phelps
                    “for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

                    Roy J. Glauber
                    “for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”

                    John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch
                    “for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

                    Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock
                    “for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

                    Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren
                    “for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005

                    Harold Pinter
                    “who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2005

                    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei
                    “for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005

                    Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling
                    “for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

                    David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek
                    “for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

                    Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose
                    “for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

                    Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck
                    “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004

                    Elfriede Jelinek
                    “for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2004

                    Wangari Muta Maathai
                    “for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004

                    Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott
                    “for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

                    Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett
                    “for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

                    “for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes”

                    Peter Agre
                    “for the discovery of water channels”

                    Roderick MacKinnon
                    “for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

                    Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield
                    “for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003

                    John M. Coetzee
                    “who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2003

                    Shirin Ebadi
                    “for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003

                    Robert F. Engle III
                    “for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

                    Clive W.J. Granger
                    “for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

                    Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba
                    “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

                    Riccardo Giacconi
                    “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

                    “for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules”

                    John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka
                    “for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

                    Kurt Wüthrich
                    “for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

                    Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston
                    “for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002

                    Imre Kertész
                    “for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2002

                    Jimmy Carter
                    “for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002

                    Daniel Kahneman
                    “for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty”

                    Vernon L. Smith
                    “for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

                    Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman
                    “for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

                    William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori
                    “for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

                    K. Barry Sharpless
                    “for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

                    Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse
                    “for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001

                    Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul
                    “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2001

                    United Nations (U.N.) and Kofi Annan
                    “for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2001

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

                    “for basic work on information and communication technology”

                    Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
                    “for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

                    Jack S. Kilby
                    “for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

                    Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa
                    “for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

                    Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel
                    “for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000

                    Gao Xingjian
                    “for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 2000

                    Kim Dae-jung
                    “for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000

                    James J. Heckman
                    “for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

                    Daniel L. McFadden
                    “for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

                    Gerardus ‘t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
                    “for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

                    Ahmed H. Zewail
                    “for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

                    Günter Blobel
                    “for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999

                    Günter Grass
                    “whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1999

                    Médecins Sans Frontières
                    “in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999

                    Robert A. Mundell
                    “for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

                    Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
                    “for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

                    Walter Kohn
                    “for his development of the density-functional theory”

                    John A. Pople
                    “for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

                    Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad
                    “for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998

                    José Saramago
                    “who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1998

                    John Hume and David Trimble
                    “for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998

                    Amartya Sen
                    “for his contributions to welfare economics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

                    Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips
                    “for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

                    Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker
                    “for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

                    Jens C. Skou
                    “for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

                    Stanley B. Prusiner
                    “for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997

                    Dario Fo
                    “who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1997

                    International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams
                    “for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1997

                    Robert C. Merton and Myron S. Scholes
                    “for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

                    Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel
                    “for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996

                    Wislawa Szymborska
                    “for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1996

                    Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta
                    “for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996

                    James A. Mirrlees and William Vickrey
                    “for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

                    “for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics”

                    Martin L. Perl
                    “for the discovery of the tau lepton”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

                    Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland
                    “for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

                    Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus
                    “for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995

                    Seamus Heaney
                    “for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1995

                    Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
                    “for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1995

                    Robert E. Lucas Jr.
                    “for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

                    “for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter”

                    Bertram N. Brockhouse
                    “for the development of neutron spectroscopy”

                    Clifford G. Shull
                    “for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994

                    George A. Olah
                    “for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

                    Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell
                    “for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994

                    Kenzaburo Oe
                    “who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1994

                    Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin
                    “for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994

                    John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr. and Reinhard Selten
                    “for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

                    Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
                    “for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

                    “for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry”

                    Kary B. Mullis
                    “for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”

                    Michael Smith
                    “for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993

                    Toni Morrison
                    “who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1993

                    Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk
                    “for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993

                    Robert W. Fogel and Douglass C. North
                    “for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

                    Georges Charpak
                    “for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992

                    Rudolph A. Marcus
                    “for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

                    Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs
                    “for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992

                    Derek Walcott
                    “for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1992

                    Rigoberta Menchú Tum
                    “for her struggle for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1992

                    Gary S. Becker
                    “for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

                    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
                    “for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991

                    Richard R. Ernst
                    “for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

                    Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann
                    “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991

                    Nadine Gordimer
                    “who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1991

                    Aung San Suu Kyi
                    “for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1991

                    Ronald H. Coase
                    “for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

                    Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor
                    “for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990

                    Elias James Corey
                    “for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

                    Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas
                    “for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990

                    Octavio Paz
                    “for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1990

                    Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
                    “for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990

                    Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller and William F. Sharpe
                    “for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

                    Norman F. Ramsey
                    “for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”

                    Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul
                    “for the development of the ion trap technique”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

                    Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech
                    “for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

                    J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus
                    “for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989

                    Camilo José Cela
                    “for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1989

                    The 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso)
                    “for advocating peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989

                    Trygve Haavelmo
                    “for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

                    Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger
                    “for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

                    Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel
                    “for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

                    Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings
                    “for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988

                    Naguib Mahfouz
                    “who, through works rich in nuance – now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous – has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1988

                    United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
                    “for preventing armed clashes and creating conditions for negotiations”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1988

                    Maurice Allais
                    “for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

                    J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller
                    “for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

                    Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen
                    “for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

                    Susumu Tonegawa
                    “for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987

                    Joseph Brodsky
                    “for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1987

                    Oscar Arias Sánchez
                    “for his work for lasting peace in Central America”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1987

                    Robert M. Solow
                    “for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

                    Ernst Ruska
                    “for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope”

                    Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
                    “for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

                    Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi
                    “for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986

                    Wole Soyinka
                    “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1986

                    Elie Wiesel
                    “for being a messenger to mankind: his message is one of peace, atonement and dignity”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986

                    James M. Buchanan Jr.
                    “for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

                    Klaus von Klitzing
                    “for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

                    Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle
                    “for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

                    Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein
                    “for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985

                    Claude Simon
                    “who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1985

                    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
                    “for spreading authoritative information and by creating awareness of the catastrophic consequences of nuclear war”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1985

                    Franco Modigliani
                    “for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

                    Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
                    “for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

                    Robert Bruce Merrifield
                    “for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

                    Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein
                    “for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984

                    Jaroslav Seifert
                    “for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1984

                    Desmond Mpilo Tutu
                    “for his role as a unifying leader figure in the non-violent campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1984

                    Richard Stone
                    “for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

                    Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
                    “for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”

                    William Alfred Fowler
                    “for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983

                    Henry Taube
                    “for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

                    Barbara McClintock
                    “for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983

                    William Golding
                    “for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1983

                    Lech Walesa
                    “for non-violent struggle for free trade unions and human rights in Poland”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1983

                    Gerard Debreu
                    “for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

                    Kenneth G. Wilson
                    “for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982

                    Aaron Klug
                    “for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

                    Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane
                    “for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982

                    Gabriel García Márquez
                    “for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1982

                    Alva Myrdal and Alfonso García Robles
                    “for their work for disarmament and nuclear and weapon-free zones”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982

                    George J. Stigler
                    “for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

                    Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow
                    “for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

                    Kai M. Siegbahn
                    “for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

                    Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann
                    “for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

                    Roger W. Sperry
                    “for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

                    David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel
                    “for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981

                    Elias Canetti
                    “for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1981

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1981

                    James Tobin
                    “for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

                    James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch
                    “for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

                    Paul Berg
                    “for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”

                    Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger
                    “for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

                    Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell
                    “for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980

                    Czeslaw Milosz
                    “who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man’s exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1980

                    Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
                    “for being a source of inspiration to repressed people, especially in Latin America”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1980

                    Lawrence R. Klein
                    “for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

                    Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg
                    “for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

                    Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig
                    “for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

                    Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield
                    “for the development of computer assisted tomography”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1979

                    Odysseus Elytis
                    “for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man’s struggle for freedom and creativeness”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1979

                    Mother Teresa
                    “for her work for bringing help to suffering humanity”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979

                    Theodore W. Schultz and Sir Arthur Lewis
                    “for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

                    Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
                    “for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics”

                    Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
                    “for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978

                    Peter D. Mitchell
                    “for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

                    Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith
                    “for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978

                    Isaac Bashevis Singer
                    “for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1978

                    Mohamed Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin
                    “for jointly having negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel in 1978”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978

                    Herbert A. Simon
                    “for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

                    Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
                    “for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977

                    Ilya Prigogine
                    “for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

                    Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally
                    “for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

                    Rosalyn Yalow
                    “for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1977

                    Vicente Aleixandre
                    “for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1977

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1977

                    Bertil Ohlin and James E. Meade
                    “for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

                    Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting
                    “for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976

                    William N. Lipscomb
                    “for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

                    Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek
                    “for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976

                    Saul Bellow
                    “for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1976

                    Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan
                    “for the courageous efforts in founding a movement to put an end to the violent conflict in Northern Ireland”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1976

                    Milton Friedman
                    “for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

                    Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater
                    “for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

                    John Warcup Cornforth
                    “for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”

                    Vladimir Prelog
                    “for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

                    David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin
                    “for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975

                    Eugenio Montale
                    “for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1975

                    Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov
                    “for his struggle for human rights in the Soviet Union, for disarmament and cooperation between all nations”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975

                    Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich and Tjalling C. Koopmans
                    “for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

                    Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
                    “for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974

                    Paul J. Flory
                    “for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

                    Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade
                    “for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974

                    Eyvind Johnson
                    “for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom”

                    Harry Martinson
                    “for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1974

                    Seán MacBride
                    “for his efforts to secure and develop human rights throughout the world”

                    Eisaku Sato
                    “for his contribution to stabilize conditions in the Pacific rim area and for signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1974

                    Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich August von Hayek
                    “for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

                    Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever
                    “for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

                    Brian David Josephson
                    “for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

                    Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson
                    “for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

                    Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen
                    “for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973

                    Patrick White
                    “for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1973

                    Henry A. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho
                    “for jointly having negotiated a cease fire in Vietnam in 1973”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1973

                    Wassily Leontief
                    “for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

                    John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer
                    “for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

                    Christian B. Anfinsen
                    “for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”

                    Stanford Moore and William H. Stein
                    “for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

                    Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter
                    “for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972

                    Heinrich Böll
                    “for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1972

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972

                    John R. Hicks and Kenneth J. Arrow
                    “for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

                    Dennis Gabor
                    “for his invention and development of the holographic method”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971

                    Gerhard Herzberg
                    “for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

                    Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
                    “for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971

                    Pablo Neruda
                    “for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1971

                    Willy Brandt
                    “for paving the way for a meaningful dialogue between East and West”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971

                    Simon Kuznets
                    “for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

                    Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
                    “for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics”

                    Louis Eugène Félix Néel
                    “for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970

                    Luis F. Leloir
                    “for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

                    Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod
                    “for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970

                    Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn
                    “for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1970

                    Norman E. Borlaug
                    “for having given a well-founded hope – the green revolution”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970

                    Paul A. Samuelson
                    “for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

                    Murray Gell-Mann
                    “for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

                    Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel
                    “for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

                    Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria
                    “for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969

                    Samuel Beckett
                    “for his writing, which – in new forms for the novel and drama – in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1969

                    International Labour Organization (I.L.O.)
                    “for creating international legislation insuring certain norms for working conditions in every country”

                    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969

                    Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen
                    “for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

                    Luis Walter Alvarez
                    “for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968

                    Lars Onsager
                    “for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

                    Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg
                    “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968

                    Yasunari Kawabata
                    “for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1968

                    René Cassin
                    “for his struggle to ensure the rights of man as stipulated in the UN Declaration”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

                    Hans Albrecht Bethe
                    “for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

                    Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter
                    “for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

                    Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald
                    “for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967

                    Miguel Angel Asturias
                    “for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1967

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

                    Alfred Kastler
                    “for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966

                    Robert S. Mulliken
                    “for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

                    Peyton Rous
                    “for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

                    Charles Brenton Huggins
                    “for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966

                    Shmuel Yosef Agnon
                    “for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people”

                    Nelly Sachs
                    “for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1966

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

                    Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman
                    “for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965

                    Robert Burns Woodward
                    “for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

                    François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod
                    “for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965

                    Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov
                    “for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1965

                    United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
                    “for its effort to enhance solidarity between nations and reduce the difference between rich and poor states”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

                    Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
                    “for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964

                    Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
                    “for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

                    Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen
                    “for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964

                    Jean-Paul Sartre
                    “for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1964

                    Martin Luther King Jr.
                    “for his non-violent struggle for civil rights for the Afro-American population”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

                    Eugene Paul Wigner
                    “for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”

                    Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
                    “for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

                    Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta
                    “for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

                    Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley
                    “for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963

                    Giorgos Seferis
                    “for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1963

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

                    Lev Davidovich Landau
                    “for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

                    Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew
                    “for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

                    Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
                    “for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962

                    John Steinbeck
                    “for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1962

                    Linus Carl Pauling
                    “for his fight against the nuclear arms race between East and West”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

                    Robert Hofstadter
                    “for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”

                    Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
                    “for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961

                    Melvin Calvin
                    “for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

                    Georg von Békésy
                    “for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961

                    Ivo Andric
                    “for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1961

                    Dag Hammarskjöld
                    “for developing the UN into an effective and constructive international organization, capable of giving life to the principles and aims expressed in the UN Charter”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

                    Donald Arthur Glaser
                    “for the invention of the bubble chamber”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960

                    Willard Frank Libby
                    “for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960

                    Saint-John Perse
                    “for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1960

                    Albert John Lutuli
                    “for his non-violent struggle against apartheid”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959

                    Jaroslav Heyrovsky
                    “for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

                    Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg
                    “for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959

                    Salvatore Quasimodo
                    “for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1959

                    Philip J. Noel-Baker
                    “for his longstanding contribution to the cause of disarmament and peace”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958

                    Frederick Sanger
                    “for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

                    George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum
                    “for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

                    Joshua Lederberg
                    “for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958

                    Boris Leonidovich Pasternak
                    “for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1958

                    Georges Pire
                    “for his efforts to help refugees to leave their camps and return to a life of freedom and dignity”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

                    Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee
                    “for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957

                    Lord (Alexander R.) Todd
                    “for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

                    Daniel Bovet
                    “for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957

                    Albert Camus
                    “for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1957

                    Lester Bowles Pearson
                    “for his crucial contribution to the deployment of a United Nations Emergency Force in the wake of the Suez Crisis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

                    William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain
                    “for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

                    Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
                    “for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

                    André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards
                    “for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956

                    Juan Ramón Jiménez
                    “for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1956

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

                    Willis Eugene Lamb
                    “for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”

                    Polykarp Kusch
                    “for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955

                    Vincent du Vigneaud
                    “for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

                    Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
                    “for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955

                    Halldór Kiljan Laxness
                    “for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1955

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

                    Max Born
                    “for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction”

                    Walther Bothe
                    “for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954

                    Linus Carl Pauling
                    “for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

                    John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins
                    “for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954

                    Ernest Miller Hemingway
                    “for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1954

                    Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
                    “for its efforts to heal the wounds of war by providing help and protection to refugees all over the world”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

                    Frits Zernike
                    “for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

                    Hermann Staudinger
                    “for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

                    Hans Adolf Krebs
                    “for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

                    Fritz Albert Lipmann
                    “for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953

                    Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
                    “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1953

                    George Catlett Marshall
                    “for proposing and supervising the plan for the economic recovery of Europe”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

                    Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell
                    “for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

                    Selman Abraham Waksman
                    “for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952

                    François Mauriac
                    “for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1952

                    Albert Schweitzer
                    “for his altruism, reverence for life, and tireless humanitarian work which has helped making the idea of brotherhood between men and nations a living one”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

                    Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
                    “for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

                    Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg
                    “for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

                    Max Theiler
                    “for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951

                    Pär Fabian Lagerkvist
                    “for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1951

                    Léon Jouhaux
                    “for having devoted his life to the fight against war through the promotion of social justice and brotherhood among men and nations”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

                    Cecil Frank Powell
                    “for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

                    Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder
                    “for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

                    Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench
                    “for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950

                    Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell
                    “in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1950

                    Ralph Bunche
                    “for his work as mediator in Palestine in 1948-1949”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

                    Hideki Yukawa
                    “for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949

                    William Francis Giauque
                    “for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

                    Walter Rudolf Hess
                    “for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

                    Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
                    “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949

                    William Faulkner
                    “for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1949

                    Lord (John) Boyd Orr of Brechin
                    “for his lifelong effort to conquer hunger and want, thereby helping to remove a major cause of military conflict and war”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

                    Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
                    “for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948

                    Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
                    “for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

                    Paul Hermann Müller
                    “for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948

                    Thomas Stearns Eliot
                    “for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1948

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

                    Sir Edward Victor Appleton
                    “for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947

                    Sir Robert Robinson
                    “for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

                    Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
                    “for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

                    Bernardo Alberto Houssay
                    “for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947

                    André Paul Guillaume Gide
                    “for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1947

                    Friends Service Council (The Quakers) and American Friends Service Committee (The Quakers)
                    “for their pioneering work in the international peace movement and compassionate effort to relieve human suffering, thereby promoting the fraternity between nation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946

                    Percy Williams Bridgman
                    “for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

                    James Batcheller Sumner
                    “for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”

                    John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley
                    “for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

                    Hermann Joseph Muller
                    “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946

                    Hermann Hesse
                    “for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1946

                    Emily Greene Balch
                    “for her lifelong work for the cause of peace”

                    John Raleigh Mott
                    “for his contribution to the creation of a peace-promoting religious brotherhood across national boundaries”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945

                    Wolfgang Pauli
                    “for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945

                    Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
                    “for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

                    Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey
                    “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945

                    Gabriela Mistral
                    “for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1945

                    Cordell Hull
                    “for his indefatigable work for international understanding and his pivotal role in establishing the United Nations”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944

                    Isidor Isaac Rabi
                    “for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944

                    Otto Hahn
                    “for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

                    Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser
                    “for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944

                    Johannes Vilhelm Jensen
                    “for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1944

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943

                    Otto Stern
                    “for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943

                    George de Hevesy
                    “for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

                    Edward Adelbert Doisy
                    “for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1943

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1943

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1942

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1942

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1942

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1942

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1941

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1941

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1941

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1940

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1940

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1940

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1940

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

                    Ernest Orlando Lawrence
                    “for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939

                    Leopold Ruzicka
                    “for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

                    Gerhard Domagk
                    “for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939

                    Frans Eemil Sillanpää
                    “for his deep understanding of his country’s peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1939

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938

                    Enrico Fermi
                    “for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938

                    Richard Kuhn
                    “for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

                    Corneille Jean François Heymans
                    “for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938

                    Pearl Buck
                    “for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1938

                    Office international Nansen pour les Réfugiés (Nansen International Office for Refugees)
                    “for having carried on the work of Fridtjof Nansen to the benefit of refugees across Europe”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

                    Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson
                    “for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

                    Walter Norman Haworth
                    “for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”

                    Paul Karrer
                    “for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

                    Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt
                    “for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937

                    Roger Martin du Gard
                    “for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1937

                    Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil)
                    “for his tireless effort in support of the League of Nations, disarmament and peace”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

                    Victor Franz Hess
                    “for his discovery of cosmic radiation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936

                    Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye
                    “for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

                    Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi
                    “for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936

                    Eugene Gladstone O’Neill
                    “for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1936

                    Carlos Saavedra Lamas
                    “for his role as father of the Argentine Antiwar Pact of 1933, which he also used as a means to mediate peace between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

                    Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie
                    “in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

                    Hans Spemann
                    “for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1935

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1935

                    Carl von Ossietzky
                    “for his burning love for freedom of thought and expression and his valuable contribution to the cause of peace”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1934

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

                    George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy
                    “for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1934

                    Luigi Pirandello
                    “for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1934

                    Arthur Henderson
                    “for his untiring struggle and his courageous efforts as Chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1931-34”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

                    Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
                    “for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

                    Thomas Hunt Morgan
                    “for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933

                    Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin
                    “for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1933

                    Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane)
                    “for having exposed by his pen the illusion of war and presented a convincing plea for international cooperation and peace”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932

                    Werner Karl Heisenberg
                    “for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932

                    Irving Langmuir
                    “for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

                    Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian
                    “for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932

                    John Galsworthy
                    “for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1932

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1931

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

                    Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius
                    “in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

                    Otto Heinrich Warburg
                    “for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1931

                    Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler
                    “for their assiduous effort to revive the ideal of peace and to rekindle the spirit of peace in their own nation and in the whole of mankind”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

                    Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
                    “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930

                    Hans Fischer
                    “for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

                    Karl Landsteiner
                    “for his discovery of human blood groups”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1930

                    Sinclair Lewis
                    “for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1930

                    Lars Olof Jonathan (Nathan) Söderblom
                    “for promoting Christian unity and helping create ‘that new attitude of mind which is necessary if peace between nations is to become reality'”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

                    Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
                    “for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

                    Christiaan Eijkman
                    “for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

                    Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
                    “for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1929

                    Thomas Mann
                    “principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1929

                    Frank Billings Kellogg
                    “for his crucial role in bringing about the Briand-Kellogg Pact”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928

                    Owen Willans Richardson
                    “for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928

                    Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
                    “for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1928

                    Sigrid Undset
                    “principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1928

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

                    Arthur Holly Compton
                    “for his discovery of the effect named after him”

                    Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
                    “for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927

                    Heinrich Otto Wieland
                    “for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

                    Julius Wagner-Jauregg
                    “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927

                    Henri Bergson
                    “in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1927

                    Ferdinand Buisson and Ludwig Quidde
                    “for their contribution to the emergence in France and Germany of a public opinion which favours peaceful international cooperation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926

                    Jean Baptiste Perrin
                    “for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926

                    Grazia Deledda
                    “for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1926

                    Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann
                    “for their crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

                    James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz
                    “for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925

                    Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
                    “for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925

                    George Bernard Shaw
                    “for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1925

                    Sir Austen Chamberlain
                    “for his crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty”

                    Charles Gates Dawes
                    “for his crucial role in bringing about the Dawes Plan”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924

                    Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
                    “for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

                    Willem Einthoven
                    “for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1924

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1924

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

                    Robert Andrews Millikan
                    “for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923

                    Fritz Pregl
                    “for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923

                    William Butler Yeats
                    “for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1923

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

                    Niels Henrik David Bohr
                    “for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922

                    Francis William Aston
                    “for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

                    Archibald Vivian Hill
                    “for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

                    Otto Fritz Meyerhof
                    “for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922

                    Jacinto Benavente
                    “for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1922

                    Fridtjof Nansen
                    “for his leading role in the repatriation of prisoners of war, in international relief work and as the League of Nations’ High Commissioner for refugees”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921

                    Albert Einstein
                    “for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921

                    Frederick Soddy
                    “for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921

                    Anatole France
                    “in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1921

                    Karl Hjalmar Branting and Christian Lous Lange
                    “for their lifelong contributions to the cause of peace and organized internationalism”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920

                    Charles Edouard Guillaume
                    “in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920

                    Walther Hermann Nernst
                    “in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

                    Schack August Steenberg Krogh
                    “for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920

                    Knut Pedersen Hamsun
                    “for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1920

                    Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois
                    “for his longstanding contribution to the cause of peace and justice and his prominent role in the establishment of the League of Nations”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919

                    Johannes Stark
                    “for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

                    Jules Bordet
                    “for his discoveries relating to immunity”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1919

                    Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler
                    “in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1919

                    Thomas Woodrow Wilson
                    “for his role as founder of the League of Nations”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918

                    Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
                    “in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918

                    Fritz Haber
                    “for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1918

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1918

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917

                    Charles Glover Barkla
                    “for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917

                    Karl Adolph Gjellerup
                    “for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals”

                    Henrik Pontoppidan
                    “for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1917

                    Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)
                    “for the efforts to take care of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war and their families”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1916

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1916

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916

                    Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam
                    “in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1916

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

                    Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
                    “for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915

                    Richard Martin Willstätter
                    “for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1915

                    Romain Rolland
                    “as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1915

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

                    Max von Laue
                    “for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914

                    Theodore William Richards
                    “in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

                    Robert Bárány
                    “for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1914

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1914

                    No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913

                    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
                    “for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913

                    Alfred Werner
                    “in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

                    Charles Robert Richet
                    “in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913

                    Rabindranath Tagore
                    “because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1913

                    Henri La Fontaine
                    “for his unparalleled contribution to the organization of peaceful internationalism”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

                    Nils Gustaf Dalén
                    “for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

                    Victor Grignard
                    “for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”

                    Paul Sabatier
                    “for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

                    Alexis Carrel
                    “in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1912

                    Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann
                    “primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1912

                    Elihu Root
                    “for bringing about better understanding between the countries of North and South America and initiating important arbitration agreements between the United States and other countries”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911

                    Wilhelm Wien
                    “for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911

                    Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
                    “in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

                    Allvar Gullstrand
                    “for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911

                    Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck
                    “in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1911

                    Tobias Michael Carel Asser
                    “for his role as co-founder of the Institut de droit international, initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law (Conférences de Droit international privé) at the Hague, and pioneer in the field of international legal relations”

                    Alfred Hermann Fried
                    “for his effort to expose and fight what he considers to be the main cause of war, namely, the anarchy in international relations”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

                    Johannes Diderik van der Waals
                    “for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910

                    Otto Wallach
                    “in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

                    Albrecht Kossel
                    “in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910

                    Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse
                    “as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1910

                    Bureau international permanent de la Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau)
                    “for acting as a link between the peace societies of the various countries, and helping them to organize the world rallies of the international peace movement”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

                    Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun
                    “in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909

                    Wilhelm Ostwald
                    “in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

                    Emil Theodor Kocher
                    “for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909

                    Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf
                    “in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1909

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

                    Gabriel Lippmann
                    “for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908

                    Ernest Rutherford
                    “for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908

                    Rudolf Christoph Eucken
                    “in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1908

                    Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer
                    “for their long time work for the cause of peace as politicians, peace society leaders, orators and authors”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

                    Albert Abraham Michelson
                    “for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907

                    Eduard Buchner
                    “for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

                    Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
                    “in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907

                    Rudyard Kipling
                    “in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1907

                    Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
                    “for his work in the press and in peace meetings, both public and private, for an understanding between France and Italy”

                    Louis Renault
                    “for his decisive influence upon the conduct and outcome of the Hague and Geneva Conferences”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

                    Joseph John Thomson
                    “in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906

                    Henri Moissan
                    “in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

                    Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal
                    “in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906

                    Giosuè Carducci
                    “not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1906

                    Theodore Roosevelt
                    “for his role in bringing to an end the bloody war recently waged between two of the world’s great powers, Japan and Russia”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905

                    Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer
                    “in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

                    Robert Koch
                    “for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905

                    Henryk Sienkiewicz
                    “because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1905

                    Bertha von Suttner
                    “for her audacity to oppose the horrors of war”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

                    Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
                    “for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904

                    Sir William Ramsay
                    “in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

                    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
                    “in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904

                    Frédéric Mistral
                    “in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist”

                    José Echegaray y Eizaguirre
                    “in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1904

                    Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law)
                    “for its striving in public law to develop peaceful ties between nations and to make the laws of war more humane”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

                    Antoine Henri Becquerel
                    “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity”

                    Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
                    “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903

                    Svante August Arrhenius
                    “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

                    Niels Ryberg Finsen
                    “in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1903

                    Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson
                    “as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1903

                    William Randal Cremer
                    “for his longstanding and devoted effort in favour of the ideas of peace and arbitration”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

                    Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman
                    “in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902

                    Hermann Emil Fischer
                    “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

                    Ronald Ross
                    “for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1902

                    Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen
                    “the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1902

                    Élie Ducommun
                    “for his untiring and skilful directorship of the Bern Peace Bureau”

                    Charles Albert Gobat
                    “for his eminently practical administration of the Inter-Parliamentary Union”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

                    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
                    “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”

                    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901

                    Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff
                    “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”

                    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

                    Emil Adolf von Behring
                    “for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

                    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901

                    Sully Prudhomme
                    “in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect”

                    The Nobel Peace Prize 1901

                    Jean Henry Dunant
                    “for his humanitarian efforts to help wounded soldiers and create international understanding”

                    Frédéric Passy
                    “for his lifelong work for international peace conferences, diplomacy and arbitration”

                    To cite this section
                    MLA style: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Thu. 17 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/lists/all-nobel-prizes>

                    About the Nobel Prize organisation

                    The Nobel Foundation

                    Tasked with a mission to manage Alfred Nobel's fortune and has ultimate responsibility for fulfilling the intentions of Nobel's will.

                    The prize-awarding institutions

                    For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category.

                    Nobel Prize outreach activities

                    Several outreach organisations and activities have been developed to inspire generations and disseminate knowledge about the Nobel Prize.


                    Tiger Woods wins the Masters Tournament for the first time

                    On April 13, 1997, 21-year-old Tiger Woods wins the prestigious Masters Tournament by a record 12 strokes in Augusta, Georgia. It was Woods’ first victory in one of golf’s four major championships—the U.S. Open, the British Open, the PGA Championship and the Masters𠅊nd the greatest performance by a professional golfer in more than a century. It also made him the youngest golfer by two years to win the Masters and the first person of Asian or African heritage to win a major.

                    Eldrick “Tiger” Woods was born in a suburb of Los Angeles, California, on December 30, 1975. The only child of an African American father and a Thai mother, Woods was encouraged from infancy by his father for a career in golf. At the age of two, he teed off against comedian Bob Hope on television’s Mike Douglas Show. At five years old, he was featured on the television show That’s Incredible. At age eight, Woods won his first junior world championship, and in 1991, at age 15, he became the youngest player ever to win the U.S. Junior Amateur Championship. He also captured the 1992 and 1993 Junior Amateur titles, and in 1994 accepted a scholarship to attend Stanford University. That year, he came from six holes behind to win the first of his three consecutive U.S. Amateur championships. He was 18 years old and the youngest Amateur champion in history.

                    In 1995, Woods played the Masters, his first professional major championship. The Augusta National Golf Club, which runs the Masters, had not let an African American join its ranks until 1991. Woods finished 41st in his first Masters appearance. In 1996, he won the collegiate title. By this time, he was already attracting considerable media attention and attracting throngs of new fans to the sport. After claiming his third U.S. Amateur title, Woods left college and turned professional in August 1996. Playing as a pro in eight Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) events in 1996, he won a title and was named the PGA Tour’s outstanding rookie. In December 1996, he was celebrated by the magazine Sports Illustrated as its “Sportsman of the Year.”

                    In professional play, most of Woods’ opponents were in their late 30s or early 40s. At 6𠆒″ and 155 pounds, he was slender and athletic, and had developed a devastating swing that routinely allowed him to hit drives of more than 300 yards. He also had a reputation for mental toughness and was a superb putter and chipper. In April 1997, all these attributes came together for the most decisive victory in the Masters’ 44-year history.

                    His margin of victory� strokes–was the largest in the 20th century, and second only to Old Tom Morris’ 13-shot margin at the 1862 British Open. His score of 18-under-par 270 broke Jack Nicklaus’ 32-year-old Masters record of 17-under-par 271. 

                    By June 1997, Woods was ranked number one in the world. In 1999, he won eight PGA tournaments, earned a record $6 million, and began a winning streak that eventually tied Ben Hogan’s 1948 streak, the second longest in PGA history. In June 2000, he won his first U.S. Open title, shooting a record 12-under-par 272 to finish 15 strokes ahead of his nearest competitors. It was the greatest professional golf performance in history, surpassing even his 1997 Masters’ triumph and Old Tom Morris’ 1862 showing. In July 2000, he captured the British Open, and in August the PGA championship. At the age of 24, he was the youngest player ever to win all four major golf titles and just the second to win three majors in a year. On April 10, 2005, he earned his fourth green sport coat at Augusta National, becoming the first person to win four Masters before age 30.

                    Wood&aposs winning pace slowed around 2004, when he devoted time to reworking his swing and rehabilitating his surgically repaired knee. It was also during this period that he married Elin Nordegren, a Swedish former model who would become the mother of his two children. Woods was back in top form by 2005, winning his 10th major. His performance fluctuated throughout the rest of the decade as he struggled with a torn ACL and personal problems that garnered substantial media attention: In late 2009, in the wake of events surrounding a car accident outside Wood&apossਏlorida home, several women came forward claiming to have had affairs with the famous golfer. Nordegren divorced him in August 2010, just as Woods began his first winless season in his career. 

                    After dropping from the international rankings, Woods&apos career started rebounding in 2013. He won the Masters Tournament in 2019, his first major championship win in eleven years. 


                    Historical Events in October 1997

                      Sidi Daoud massacre in Algeria 43 killed at a fake roadblock Andy Green's Jet-powered car reaches record 749.69 MPH MLB National League Championship: Florida Marlins beat Atlanta Braves, 4 games to 2 Britain's Andy Green sets jet-powered car record (763.035 mph) Former rep Dan Rostenkowski released from custody for mail fraud

                    Event of Interest

                    Oct 15 NY jury awards boxer Mitch Green $45,000 in civil lawsuit against Mike Tyson, for street brawl in 1988

                      US launches nuclear powered Cassini to Saturn MLB American League Championship: Cleveland Indians beat Baltimore Orioles, 4 games to 2 Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded to Jens Christain Skou, Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker for their work on enzymes in the body "Side Show," opens at Richard Rodgers Theater NYC for 91 performances

                    Event of Interest

                    Oct 18 The groundbreaking Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Gehry, is inaugurated by King Juan Carlos I in Bilbao, Spain

                      "Annie" closes at Martin Beck Theater NYC 700th World Series home run (Sandy Alomar, Cleveland Indians) Richard Gnida, Limo driver in Detroit Red Wings crash, pleads guilty US accuses Microsoft of violating pact forcing IE browser on computers

                    Event of Interest

                    Oct 22 Larry Flynt sells Hustler in a non-zoned area of Cincinnati

                    Event of Interest

                    Oct 22 NHL superstar Wayne Gretzky's wife Janet is knocked unconscious and gets 2 stitches after plexiglass falls on her watching a game

                      Second longest 9 inning World Series game (4:12) as Marlins & Indians were tied 7-7 going into the 9th, Mariners win 14-11 Compaq testifies Microsoft threaten to break Windows 95 agreement if they showcased a Netscape icon "Triumph of Love" opens at Royale Theater NYC At 6:11 AM San Francisco experiences a power blackout due to sabotage Dow Jones drops 186.88 pts Les Alexander, owner of Houston Rockets buys NHL's Edmonton Oilers Marv Albert sentenced in assault case After a brief civil war which has driven President Pascal Lissouba out of Brazzaville, Denis Sassou-Nguesso proclaims himself the President of the Republic of the Congo. 9th College Football Holy War: Notre Dame beats Boston College 52-20 in South Bend World Series Baseball: Florida beats Cleveland Indians, 3-2 in Game 7 at Pro Player Stadium, Miami for Marlins first-ever title MVP: Florida pitcher Liván Hernández

                    Event of Interest

                    Oct 26 Jacques Villeneuve finishes 3rd in European Grand Prix at Jerez, Spain first Canadian to win F1 World Drivers Championship wins by 39 points from Michael Schumacher


                    Historical Events on May 28

                    Treaty of Interest

                    1521 Pope Leo X signs treaty with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

                      Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina-Sidonia departs Lisbon to invade England Claudio Monteverdi's "Arianna" premieres in Mantua Zorilla's "El Desafio de Carlos V" premieres in Madrid Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of the Earl of Derby (English Civil War) All Hebrew books in Papal State are confiscated Spain and Bavaria sign treaty 1st indoor swimming pool opens (Goodman's Fields, London)

                    Battle of Interest

                    1754 Battle of Jumonville Glen: forces led by George Washington kill French Canadian officer Joseph Coulon de Jumonville

                    Trail of Tears

                    1830 US President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act, a key law leading to the forced removal of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes out of Georgia and surrounding states, setting the stage for the Cherokee Trail of Tears

                      Fire in Quebec, Canada, 1,500 houses destroyed Princess Marianne of the Netherlands and Albrecht of Prussia separate

                    Theater Premiere

                      1st black regiment (54 Mass) leaves Boston to fight in US Civil War Dutch government of Zuylen van Nijevelt/Heemskerk forms Paris communards revolt put down 3rd Preakness: L Hughes aboard Tom Ochiltree wins in 2:43.5 8th Preakness: L Hughes aboard Grenada wins in 2:40.5

                    Event of Interest

                    1889 Édouard and André Michelin incorporate the Michelin tyre company

                    Event of Interest

                    1892 Sierra Club formed by John Muir and others in San Francisco, for conservation of nature

                      Fire in Cincinnati nearly destroys Reds' grandstand Total solar eclipse occurs In China, rioters provoked by Boxers burn the Fengtai Railway Station, where many Belgians work

                    Event of Interest

                    1900 Paul Kruger, President of the Boer Republic of South Africa, flees its capital, Pretoria, goes to Watervalboven to evade the advancing British

                      26th Preakness: Fred Landry aboard The Parader wins in 1:47.2 Laws against phosphor matches enacted (inhibition white phosphorous) 29th Preakness: Eugene Hildebrand aboard Bryn Mawr wins in 1:44.2 Shields/Cobbs musical "His Honor, The Mayor" premieres in NYC

                    Event of Interest

                    1928 Dodge Brothers Inc and Chrysler Corporation merge

                      1st all color talking picture "On With the Show" exhibited (NYC) Georges Forbes succeeds Joseph Ward as premier of New Zealand Dam closed, at current monument (South Seas) Jack Hobbs scores his 197th (or 199th) and last 1st class cricket century at 51 years and 163 days of age [1] Near Callander, Ontario, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Olivia and Elzire Dionne, later becoming the first quintuplets to survive infancy The Glyndebourne festival in Sussex, England, inaugurated

                    On Computable Numbers

                    1936 Alan Turing submits "On Computable Numbers" for publication, in which he set out the theoretical basis for modern computers.

                    Election of Interest

                    1937 Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

                    Music Premiere

                    1938 Paul Hindemith's opera "Mathis der Maler" premieres in Zurich

                      Belgium surrenders to Germany, King Leopold III gives himself up British-French troops capture Narvik, Norway

                    Music Premiere

                    1940 Irving Berlin's musical "Louisiana Purchase" premieres in NYC

                      1st night game at Griffith Stadium, Washington, D.C. (NY Yankees pip the Senators 6-5) Allied troops begin evacuation of Crete 1,800 Czechs murdered by Nazis during attack on Heydrich US Patent filed for a hydrogen bomb 1st night game at Yankee stadium (Senators 2, Yanks 1)

                    Event of Interest

                    1946 Manuel Roxas was inaugurated as the last President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines

                      Israeli Air Force is officially founded shortly after the start of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War Iraq captures Ge'ulim settlement French Championships Men's Tennis: Frank Parker retains title beats fellow American Budge Patty 6-3, 1-6, 6-1, 6-4 French Championships Women's Tennis: Margaret Osborne duPont wins her second French singles crown beats Nelly Adamson Landry of France 7-5, 6-2

                    Baseball Record

                    1951 After going 0-for-12, Willie Mays connects for his 1st major league home run

                      Bernardus J Alfrink appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Utrecht and Titular Archbishop of Tyana The Jerry Colonna Show debuts on ABC-TV

                    Event of Interest

                    1951 Radio programme "Crazy People" (later titled The Goon Show) premieres on the BBC, created by Spike Milligan

                      Memphis Kiddie Park opens in Brooklyn, Ohio. The park's Little Dipper roller coaster would become the oldest operating steel roller coaster in North America. The women of Greece are given the right to vote. Premier of 1st animated 3-D cartoon in Technicolor-"Melody"

                    Event of Interest

                    1955 80th Preakness: Eddie Arcaro aboard Nashua wins in 1:54.6

                      Indianapolis 500: Bob Sweikert wins Henry Bolte becomes Premier of the state of Victoria Dale Long becomes 1st to hit HRs in 8 straight games

                    Event of Interest

                    1956 Eisenhower signs farm bill allows government to store agricultural surplus

                      NL approves baseball's Brooklyn Dodgers' & NY Giants' move to the US west coast US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site WPSD TV channel 6 in Paducah, KY (NBC) begins broadcasting

                    Event of Interest

                    1958 French government of Prime Minister Pierre Pflimlin resigns 200,000 demonstrate against Charles de Gaulle

                      European Cup Final, Brussels: Francisco Gento scores the winner in extra time as Real Madrid beats AC Milan, 3-2 3rd consecutive title for Los Blancos Congressional Committee of Astronautics meets Project 7 astronauts Johnson & Bart's musical "Lock Up Your Daughters" premieres in London Monkeys Able & Baker zoom 300 miles (500 km) into space on Jupiter missile, become 1st animals retrieved from a space mission

                    Event of Interest

                    1960 Frank Loesser's musical "Greenwillow", starring Anthony Perkins, closes at Alvin Theater, NYC, after 95 performances

                    Event of Interest

                    1960 59th Women's French Championships: Darlene Hard beats Yola Ramirez (6-3, 6-4)

                    The Orient Express

                    1961 Last trip (Paris to Bucharest) on the Orient Express (after 78 years)

                    Event of Interest

                    1964 Dmitri Shostakovich completes his 9th String quartet

                    Event of Interest

                      Palestine National Congress forms the PLO in Jerusalem Unmanned Apollo 2 Saturn test launched into Earth orbit Fire & explosion at Dhori mine in Dhanbad India kills 400 "Ballad Of Irving", parody song by Frank Gallop hits #34 Dmitri Shostakovich's 11th String quartet premieres in Leningrad Dmitri Shostakovich completes his 2nd Violin concert Francis Chichester arrives home at Plymouth from Round-the-world trip USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR MLB: AL announces it is splitting into 2 divisions MLB: NL grants San Diego Padres a franchise

                    Event of Interest

                    1968 Senator Eugene McCarthy wins Democratic presidential primary in Oregon

                      European Cup Final, Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, Madrid: AC Milan striker Pierino Prati scores 3 in 4-1 win over Ajax second title for I Rossoneri The formerly united Free University of Brussels officially splits into two separate entities, the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Arms Trial Begins: several men are charged in a Dublin court with conspiracy to illegally import arms for use by the Irish Republican Army (IRA)

                    Album Release

                      USSR Mars 3 launched, 1st spacecraft to soft land on Mars White House "plumbers" first break in at the Democratic National Headquarters and install listening devices at Watergate Complex in Washington, D.C. Four Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteers and four civilians killed when a bomb they were preparing exploded prematurely at a house in Belfast Chicago White Sox beat Cleveland Indians, 6-3, in 21 innings (game started 5/26) Indianapolis 500: Gordon Johncock wins in 2:05:25.320 (255.944 km/h)

                    Emmy Awards

                    1974 26th Emmy Awards: M*A*S*H, Alan Alda & Mary Tyler Moore win, 1st Daytime Award presentation and "The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman" wins 5 awards, including Cicely Tyson for Dramatic Performance

                      Italian fascists bomb demonstrators in Brescia, 6 killed Stephen Schwartz' musical "Magic Show" opens at Cort Theater, NYC runs for 1859 performances Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 18 launches 19th European Cup: Bayern Munich beats Leeds United 2-0 at Paris Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is established by the Treaty of Lagos

                    Event of Interest

                    1976 29th Cannes Film Festival: "Taxi Driver" directed by Martin Scorsese wins the Palme d'Or

                      Beverly Hills Supper Club fire in Southgate, Kentucky kills 168 Indianapolis 500: Al Unser Snr in a Lola dominates second half of race to hold off Tom Sneva for his third Indy victory Second round of the presidential elections in Upper Volta. The election is won by incumbent Sangoulé Lamizana. European Market accepts Greece as member

                    Television Premiere

                    1979 ABC premiere of TV's "The House on Garibaldi Street", based on the 1960 capture of Adolf Eichmann in Argentina

                    Papal Visit

                    1982 Pope John Paul II is 1st reigning pope to visit Great Britain (Adrian IV was born in England, as Nicholas Breakspear)

                    Event of Interest

                    Event of Interest

                    1984 George Soros founds the Soros Foundation Budapest to help countries free themselves from communism

                      David Jacobsen taken hostage in Beirut Lebanon Discovery moves to Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (Florida) for mating of STS 51-G Democratic Labor Party wins parliamentary election in Barbados White Sox Joe Cowley sets record striking out 1st 7 Rangers he faces 60th US National Spelling Bee: Stephanie Petit wins spelling staphylococci Mathias Rust, 18 year old West German pilot, makes unauthorized landing near Red Square, Moscow in USSR Monitor, Civil War warship, is discovered by a deep sea robot Paul Pearman jumps 21 barrels on a skateboard in Augusta Southern League no-hit record-Bob Milacki pitches 11 1/3 no-hit inn Stacking of Discovery's SRBs completed Indianapolis 500: Emerson Fittipaldi of Brazil first foreign winner since 1966 completes final lap under caution after crashing with Al Unser Jr Cesar Gaviria Trujillo installed as president of Colombia "Dave Thomas Comedy Show" debuts on CBS-TV Eugenia Charles' Dominican Freedom Party wins election in Dominica Longest wheelie (David Robilliard with 5h12m33s (Channel Islands)

                    Baseball Record

                    1994 Twin's Dave Winfield passes Rod Carew into 15th hit list (3,054)

                      "An Inspector Calls" closes at Royale Theater, NYC, after 454 performances Earthquake hits Russian town of Khabarovsk, killing 2,000 people Southwestern Florida outside of Tampa begins using new area code 941 White Sox (5) & Tigers (7) combine for record 12 HRs at Tiger Stadium Indianapolis 500: Canadian driver Jacques Villeneuve wins as race leader Scott Goodyear is controversially black flagged on lap 195 48th Cannes Film Festival: "Underground" directed by Emir Kusturica wins the Palme d'Or

                    Event of Interest

                    1996 U.S. President Bill Clinton's former business partners in the Whitewater land deal, James McDougal and Susan McDougal, and Arkansas Governor Jim Guy Tucker, are convicted of fraud.


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