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The Fortress of Rhodes 1309-1522, Konstantin Nossov

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The Fortress of Rhodes 1309-1522, Konstantin Nossov

The Fortress of Rhodes 1309-1522, Konstantin Nossov

Fortress 96

The fortress of Rhodes was one of the most impressive fortresses of its time, and is very important in the history of western fortifications. It was hardly modified after it fell to the Turks in 1522, and so we can see what efforts were made to counter the increasing threat of gunpowder weapons in the years before the appearance of the fully developed gunpowder fortress.

The success of this book owes a great deal to the survival of large parts of the fortress of Rhodes in almost the same condition as well it fell to the Turks in 1522. This has allowed the author to include a huge number of photographs showing the exact features he is discussing, and really brings the place alive.

Nossov also does a very good job of explaining how the defences of Rhodes evolved, especially in the forty years between the two big Turkish sieges. This was the period that saw the medieval walls replaced by lower wider walls designed to both withstand and to carry cannon.

Nossov finishes with a look at the sieges of 1480 and 1522, giving us a good idea of how the fortifications stood up to attack, eventually falling more because of the small size of the garrison than because of any flaws in the fortifications themselves.

Chapters
Introduction
Chronology
Design and Development
The Principles of Defence
Tour of the Fortress
The Living Sites
The Fortress at War
Aftermath
Glossary

Author: Konstantin Nossov
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 64
Publisher: Osprey
Year: 2010



The Fortress of Rhodes 1309–1522

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The Fortress of Rhodes 1309–1522

The island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. Excavations show that Greek settlements existed on the island as early as the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. The Minoans appeared here in the 16th century BC, and the Achaeans in the 15th century BC. The 11th century BC saw the arrival of the Dorians, who are responsible for the building of three large cities that prospered during the centuries that followed: Ialysos, Lindos and Kamiros. Lindos was an important naval and mercantile base in the region in the 8th–6th centuries BC. In the late 5th century BC the inhabitants of Ialysos, Lindos and Kamiros decided to combine their efforts and build a new city, which was founded on the northern extremity of the island in 408 BC and called Rhodes. According to the Athenian architect Hippodamus, the city had a regular layout, a good water supply and a good sewer system. Comfortable harbours and an advantageous position on trade routes from East to West were conducive to the city’s prosperity. By the late 4th century BC it had acquired formidable defensive walls, which successfully withstood the siege of the army of Demetrius Poliorcetes in 305/04 BC. The walls of Rhodes were an excellent example of a fortification from the Hellenistic era, and Philon of Byzantium admired them in the mid-3rd century BC. In 227/26 BC the walls suffered considerably in an earthquake, but were restored owing to the financial and technical support of many Greek city-states. Rhodes was later owned by the Romans, and then by the Byzantines, who built a fortress here. In the Middle Ages Rhodes lost the power and magnificence it had boasted in antiquity. It was only the Order of St John that breathed new life into the city and made it shine again.

Remains of a tower that belonged to Rhodes’ Hellenistic walls. Only some foundations survive of the formidable antique walls that once encircled the city, enrapturing its visitors. Unfortunately, even the line of these walls cannot be followed everywhere.

Gate to a barbican at St Paul Gate. High vertical slits indicate that a drawbridge used to be fastened here.

By the time they settled on the island of Rhodes, the Hospitallers already had great experience in building fortifications. The maintenance of castles within crusader states had become a great problem for Christian rulers, who frequently lacked manpower. They were therefore only too glad to pass on responsibility for the most vulnerable castles to military orders capable of protecting them. In exchange for the obligation to maintain fortifications and keep the garrison, the Hospitallers were frequently presented with whole castles or parts of a castle (for instance, a tower and a barbican in the Kerak in Moab). The wealth of the Order grew, and by 1160 it was already rich enough to buy castles outright. By the time of the conflict with Saladin the Order had 27 castles, and all in all over 30 castles passed through Hospitaller hands at different times. No wonder that, being the owners of such a great number of castles, they became expert in fortification. Louis IX is known to have asked for the Hospitallers’ advice about fortifying Caesarea in 1251.

Main wall of the English (originally Aragon) Post. The rectangular tower on a massive socle was first a detached structure connected to the main wall by a small bridge, and had a battlemented parapet. It was later joined to the wall (which has a different type of masonry), and the battlemented parapet was replaced with a slanting one suitable for artillery.

Loophole in the shape of a so-called inverted keyhole, at the barbican at St Paul Gate. These loopholes were primarily designed for shooting with firearms, while a circular opening at the bottom is evidence that a small cannon could also be used to shoot through it.

The Order of St John was an international organization that had territorial possessions (priories) in many Western European countries. Consequently, its members were divided into national communities known as langues. The langues were first mentioned in 1206. By the time it arrived in Rhodes, the Order counted seven langues: Aragon (which comprised all the knights coming from the Iberian Peninsula), Auvergne, England (including Scotland and Ireland), France, Germany, Italy and Provence. In 1461 the faction of Castile–Portugal detached from the langue of Aragon, bringing the total up to eight. At the time of Henry VIII the langue of England was eliminated and the Bavarian langue appeared instead. Only a citizen of one of those nations could apply for membership of the Order. Within the city of Rhodes, each langue owned an inn, which was the place of assembly for all brothers of the same community. The Rhodian garrison comprised representatives of all langues, and each langue was given a section of the city to defend. The division of the city defences in this manner stimulated rivalry between members of different nations, with each langue trying to excel the others in bravery and steadfastness. Brother-knights and brother-sergeants-at-arms were the elite of the Order’s troops, while the majority of its army, as well as the garrison of the fortresses, consisted of mercenaries.

Like other lands belonging to the Order, the island of Rhodes was divided into several districts (castellanies). Each district had a castle under the command of a Hospitaller captain (castellan), who was a war-hardened knight as a rule. He commanded several brothers-in-arms, mercenaries and local militias. Rhodes boasted over 20 castles, excluding watchtowers. In case of danger these castles could give shelter to the local population. However, except for the city-fortress of Rhodes and a few other fortresses (Lindos, Pheraclos, Horio in Kalymnos and Platanos in Leros) most of the castles were rather poorly fortified. They could offer protection from pirates plundering on the coasts of the Aegean Sea, but were unable to withstand a full siege. Therefore, when threatened with a serious invasion the inhabitants of Rhodes and the other islands belonging to the Order were evacuated to the city.

According to the statutes of 1311 and 1314, the permanent garrison of the fortress was to consist of 500 cavalrymen and 1,000 infantrymen. There were not enough people to meet this total however, so in 1313 the Order issued a decree that all westerners who settled on Rhodes and served as soldiers or sailors were to be given land and pensions. In 1340 the garrison of Rhodes consisted of 200 Knights Hospitallers, 50 mounted brother-sergeants, 50 mounted secular men-at-arms and 1,000 infantrymen. To withstand great sieges the Rhodian garrison was increased at the expense of garrisons from other Hospitaller fortresses and sailors from their ships and galleys, as well as mercenaries and volunteers from Europe. In case of an attack, the local Greek population was also engaged in defending the city and was provided with weapons from the Order’s armouries.


Popular culture

The tower of St. John at the East end of the English sector. The tower was built under Grand Master Antonio Fluvian (1421–37), and it had a gate. Later a barbican was built around it under Grand Master Piero Raimundo Zacosta (1461–67). Finally the large pentagonal bulwark was built in front of it c. 1487, and the gate was removed.

Grand culverin of Francis I of France with salamander emblem and inscription in Arabic language, Siege of Rhodes (1522). Musée de l'Armée.

The Tower of Italy had a round bulwark built around by Grand Master Fabrizio del Carretto in 1515–17, and provided with gun ports at lowest level covering the ditch in every direction, for a total of three stacked tiers of cannon fire (two from the bulwark, one from the tower).

Bombard-Mortar of the Knights of Saint John, Rhodes, 1480-1500. Founded at the request of Pierre d'Aubusson, the bombard was used for close defence of the walls (100–200 metres). It fired 260 kg granite balls. The bombard weighs 3,325 kg. Musée de l'Armée.

Culverin with the arms of Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, Rhodes. Caliber: 140 millimetres (5.5 in), length: 339 centimetres (133 in), weight: 2,533 kilograms (5,584 lb), ammunition: 10 kilograms (22 lb) iron ball. Remitted by Abdülaziz to Napoleon III in 1862.


Tower and Gate of St. Paul (Post of France), Fortress of Rhodes.

The construction of the complex of fortifications near the Grand Master's Palace was begun under Jean de Lastic (1437 - 1454), who also built the Cannon and St. Anthony Gates, as well as the Battery of the Olives. Pierre d' Aubusson (1476 - 1503) had it strengthened with a thick earthen outwork, which was cut through with a gate (d'Amboise Gate) under Emery d'Amboise 1n 1512. In 1514 Grand MasterFabrizo del Carretto had a caponier built in the ditch on the extreme north-west cornerof the fortress, beyond d'Amboise Gate. The Gate of St. Paul as protected from the outside with a polygonal barbican. Although the walls of the barbican were adjusted to accomodate artillery, they were fairly thin and crowned with a merloned parapet.

outwork -- Any defensive structure in front of the main enciente

caponier -- A covered defensive passagemade in a dry ditch projecting away from the main enciente in the direction of te enemy. It is sometimes connected to the main enciente with outworks. It was chiefly designed for laying flanking fire along the ditch

barbican --An outwork designed for the defence of agate or a bridge leading to a gate

merlon --The upstanding sections of a parapet between embrasures, behind which defenders can shelter

parapet -- A bank, of earth, or a wall over which a soldier may fire also known as a breastwork

enciente -- Th outline of the main line of defences, excluding minor outworks

embrasures -- An opening in a parapet allowing artillery to fire through.

-Konstantin Nossov, "The Fortress of Rhodes 1309-1522," (Osprey, 2010)
-Ian Hogg, "The History of Fortification," (St. Martin's Press, 1981).


Indian Castles 1206-1526

Author: Konstantin S. Nossov Format: Paperback Release Date: 06/09/2006

This era is rightly considered to be the defining age of Indian castle and fortification design. The instability and feudal division of the country throughout the greater part of the period led to the intense fortification of many of the provinces, as each small lord sought to bolster his position by constructing castles. It is also the period during which Indian castles start to show their defining features, elements of which would be modified in later years as the technology of siege warfare changed. The combined influence of the Islamic and Hindu architectural tradition lends these fortifications a unique style. This title will cover all the major sites of the period - including the fabled seven medieval cities on the site of present-day Delhi, as well as covering the prominent sieges that occurred.


Contents

The Knights of St. John, or Knights Hospitallers, had captured Rhodes in the early 14th century after the loss of Acre, the last Crusader stronghold in Palestine in 1291. From Rhodes, they became an active part of the trade in the Aegean sea, and at times harassed Turkish shipping in the Levant to secure control over the eastern Mediterranean. A first effort by the Ottomans to capture the island, in 1480, was repulsed by the Order, but the continuing presence of the knights just off the southern coast of Anatolia was a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion.

Since the previous siege the fortress had received many upgrades from the new school of trace italienne, which made it much more formidable in resisting artillery. In the most exposed land-facing sectors, these included a thickening of the main wall, doubling of the width of the dry ditch, coupled with a transformation of the old counterscarp into massive outworks (tenailles), the construction of bulwarks around most towers, and caponiers enfilading the ditch. Gates were reduced in number, and the old battlement parapets were replaced with slanting ones suitable for artillery fights. [4] A team of masons, labourers, and slaves did the construction work, the Muslim slaves were charged with the hardest labor. [4]

In 1521, Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam was elected Grand Master of the Order. Expecting a new Ottoman attack on Rhodes, he continued to strengthen the city's fortifications, work that had begun after the Ottoman invasion of 1480 and the earthquake of 1481, and called upon the Order's knights elsewhere in Europe to come to the island's defence. The rest of Europe ignored his request for assistance, but Sir John Rawson, Prior of the Order's Irish House, came alone. The city was protected by two and, in some places three, rings of stone walls and several large bastions. The defence of the walls and bastions was assigned in sections to the different Langues into which the knights had been organized since 1301. The harbour entrance was blocked by a heavy iron chain, behind which the Order's fleet was anchored.

When the Turkish invasion force of 400 ships arrived on Rhodes on 26 June 1522, they were commanded by Çoban Mustafa Pasha. [2] Sultan Suleiman himself arrived with the army of 100,000 men on 28 July to take personal charge. [2]

The Turks blockaded the harbour and bombarded the town with field artillery from the land side, followed by almost daily infantry attacks. They also sought to undermine the fortifications through tunnels and mines. The artillery fire was slow in inflicting serious damage to the massive walls, but after five weeks, on 4 September, two large gunpowder mines exploded under the bastion of England, causing a 12-yard (11 m) portion of the wall to fall and to fill the moat. The attackers immediately assaulted this breach and soon gained control of it, but a counterattack by the English brothers under Fra' Nicholas Hussey and Grand Master Villiers de L'Isle-Adam succeeded in driving them back again. Twice more the Turks assaulted the breach that day, but each time the English brothers, aided by German brothers, held the gap.

On 24 September, Mustafa Pasha ordered a new massive assault, aimed mainly at the bastions of Spain, England, Provence, and Italy. After a day of furious fighting, during which the bastion of Spain changed hands twice, Suleiman eventually called off the attack. He sentenced Mustafa Pasha, his brother-in-law, to death for his failure to take the city, but eventually spared his life after other senior officials had pleaded with him for mercy. Mustafa's replacement, Ahmed Pasha, was an experienced siege engineer, and the Turks now focused their efforts on undermining the ramparts and blowing them up with mines while maintaining their continuous artillery barrages. The regularity of the locations where the mines were detonated under the walls (which generally rest on rock) has led to the suggestion that the Turkish miners may have taken advantage of culverts under the Hellenistic city which lies beneath the medieval city of Rhodes. [5]

Another major assault at the end of November was repelled, but both sides were now exhausted—the Knights because they were reaching the end of their capacity to resist and no relief forces could be expected to arrive in time, the Turks because their troops were increasingly demoralized and depleted by combat fatalities and disease spreading through their camps. Suleiman offered the citizens peace, their lives, and food if they surrendered the alternative would be death or slavery if the Turks were compelled to take the city by force. Pressed by the townspeople, Villiers de L'Isle-Adam agreed to negotiate. A truce was declared for 11–13 December to allow negotiations, but when the locals demanded further assurances for their safety, Suleiman was angered and ordered the bombardment and assaults to resume. The bastion of Spain fell on 17 December. With most of the walls now destroyed, it was merely a matter of time before the city would have to surrender, and on 20 December, after several days of pressure from the town's people, the Grand Master asked for a fresh truce.

On 22 December, the representatives of the city's Latin and Greek inhabitants accepted Suleiman's terms, which were generous. The knights were given twelve days to leave the island and would be allowed to take with them their weapons and any valuables or religious icons they desired. Islanders who wished to leave could do so at any time within a three-year period. No church would be desecrated or turned into a mosque. Those remaining on the island would be free of Ottoman taxation for five years.

On 1 January 1523, the remaining knights and soldiers marched out of the town, with banners flying, drums beating, and in battle armour. They boarded the 50 ships which had been made available to them and sailed to Crete (a Venetian possession), accompanied by several thousand civilians.

The siege of Rhodes ended with an Ottoman victory. The conquest of Rhodes was a major step towards Ottoman control over the eastern Mediterranean and greatly eased their maritime communications between Constantinople and Cairo and the Levantine ports. Later, in 1669, from this base Ottoman Turks captured Venetian Crete. [6]

The Knights Hospitaller initially moved to Sicily, but, in 1530, obtained the islands of Malta, Gozo, and the North African port city of Tripoli, following an agreement between Pope Clement VII, himself a Knight, and Emperor Charles V. [7]

The tower of St. John at the East end of the English sector. The tower was built under Grand Master Antonio Fluvian (1421–37), and it had a gate. Later a barbican was built around it under Grand Master Piero Raimundo Zacosta (1461–67). Finally the large pentagonal bulwark was built in front of it c. 1487, and the gate was removed.

Grand culverin of Francis I of France with salamander emblem and inscription in Ottoman Turkish Vitar: 45, Chap: 14, Qarish: 13. Siege of Rhodes (1522), Musée de l'Armée.

The Tower of Italy had a round bulwark built around by Grand Master Fabrizio del Carretto in 1515–17, and provided with gun ports at lowest level covering the ditch in every direction, for a total of three stacked tiers of cannon fire (two from the bulwark, one from the tower).

Bombard-Mortar of the Knights of Saint John, Rhodes, 1480-1500. Founded at the request of Pierre d'Aubusson, the bombard was used for close defence of the walls (100–200 metres). It fired 260 kg granite balls. The bombard weighs 3,325 kg. Musée de l'Armée.

Culverin with the arms of Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, Rhodes. Caliber: 140 millimetres (5.5 in), length: 339 centimetres (133 in), weight: 2,533 kilograms (5,584 lb), ammunition: 10 kilograms (22 lb) iron ball. Remitted by Abdülaziz to Napoleon III in 1862.


The Fortress of Rhodes 1309-1522, Konstantin Nossov - History

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История Госпитальеров на Родосе начинается с 1306 года, когда Великий Магистр Фульк де Виллар вступает в переговоры с генуэзским пиратом Виньоло де Виньоли, о захвате и разделе Родоса и ближайших островов, которые формально принадлежали Византии. В этом же году Магистр вместе с отрядом рыцарей и пехоты покидает Кипр и выдвигается на Родос. Завоевание острова не далось рыцарям легко и полностью завершилось только к 1309 году взятием главного города острова.
Сразу после захвата города и на всем протяжении господства рыцарей самое пристальное внимание уделялось главной крепости. Она восстанавливалась после осад, совершенствовалась для успешной борьбы с новым вооружением и развивалась как большой и живой организм. Крепостные укрепления в сохранившемся виде относятся именно к тому периоду, когда использование артиллерии совершило переворот в военном искусстве и особенно в обороне. При этом старые крепостные укрепления не были снесены для нового строительства в соответствии с новыми принципами фортификационной науки, а претерпели реконструкцию и модернизацию.

Структура крепостных укреплений Родоса основывалась на внутренней организации ордена. Иоанниты были организацией многонациональной, в ней состояли аристократы из всех стран католической Европы. Внутри этой многонациональной структуры выделялись различные национальные группы - называемые lingua ("язык", в современном понимании "национальность"). В разных источниках этот термин называется по разному. Я буду придерживаться термина - ланг. Каждый ланг располагал на Родосе своей резиденцией, а так же отвечал за свой участок крепостных укреплений.

Описание фортификации я начну с Пушечных ворот, через которые можно пройти от Дворца Великого Магистра к крепостным укреплениям (с этих ворот начинается пеший маршрут по стенам крепости). К воротам примыкают две круглые башни с навесными бойницами (машикули - использовались для вертикального обстрела нападающих, штурмующих крепость) и увеченные зубцами в виде ласточкиного хвоста.



От них идет поперечная стена, которая соединяет Дворец с наружной крепостной стеной. В нижней части поперечной стены проделаны Ворота Святого Антония, которые ведут из города наружу.

К северу от Пушечных ворот располагается протяженный бастион.

Позднее толстая крепостная стена закрыла внутри всю более раннюю оборонительную систему. А окончательно сформировал этот участок фортификации Магитр д'Амбуаз, который построил удивительные наружные ворота, названные в его честь. К воротам примыкают две приземистые круглые башни. Вертикальные щели над входом говорят о том, что раньше тут был подъемный мост.


Реконструкция этой части укреплений представлена на рисунке. (Здесь и далее рисунки, изображающие фрагменты укреплений, взяты из замечательно книги "The Fortress of Rhodes 1309-1522" Konstantin Nossov)

От Ворот д'Амбуаз и до бастиона Святого Георгия находилась боевая позиция ланга Германии.

Далее видно бастион Святого Георгия и его башню. Это были одни из центральных ворот крепости, поскольку они вели из загородной местности прямо на рынок. Каменный мост вел снаружи внутрь бастиона. Высокая прямоугольная башня возвышалась перед воротами и крепостной стеной. В 1496 году д'Обюссон замуровывает ворота и превращает их в обычный бастион. Свой окончательный вид этот бастион приобрел в 1521 году. Он был модернизирован по проекту уже упоминавшегося инженера Базило делла Скуола.


От бастиона начиналась боевая позиция ланга Оверни, доходившая до башни ланга Испании. Изначально башня была отрезана от крепостной стены и была на 3 м выше последней. Позже в 1489 году основание ее опоясывает толстая стена (bulwark) с амбразурами, расположенными практически на уровне земли, для поражения нападающих, прорвавшихся через ров к стенам крепости . На южной стороне снаружи помещен герб д'Обюссона c датой 1489


Схематично фрагмент этих укреплений выглядит так (слева бастион Святого Георгия, справа - башня Испании).

Следующие далее укрепления одни из самых мощных и сложных. С 1465 года это боевая позиция ланга Англии. Стена его толстая и усилена бруствером и амбразурами. Внизу у рва находится вторая стена с двумя прямоугольными башенками. За рвом располагается дополнительная линия укреплений (теналь), которая защищает основную стену от прямого артиллерийского огня. Теналь укреплена только с внешней стороны и открыта изнутри, из-за чего она не может быть использована нападающими при ее захвате.


Ворота Святого Афанасия защищала с запада круглая и высокая Башня Богородицы, которую построил отдельно от стены Ж. де Ластик в 1441-1442 годах. Магистр Орсини соединил башню с крепостной сетной, а в конце XV-начале XVI века башню опоясал бастион. На фото башня со стороны рва.

Именно через эти ворота в город вошел турецкий султан Сулейман Великолепный, после сдачи крепости рыцарями.


Ворота - как самая уязвиямая часть крепости, защищались группой оборонительных элементов. Дорога в крепость через Ворота Святого Афанасия проходит через внешние укрепления, защищающие башню (это вход хорошо видно на фото), проходит через подъемный мост (сейчас конечно уже не подъемный) и далее идет вдоль главных стен до башни Святого Афанасия. Вся эта система представлена на рисунке ниже.

Дальше по прежнему идут толстые стены с эскарпом. На всем протяжении до Ворот Святого Иоанна стены усилены четырьмя прямоугольными башнями, ниже проходит второй ряд стен. Посреди рва располагается протяженная теналь.

Ворота Святого Иоанна (Красный Ворота) являются сложной и мощной фортификацией. Первые ворота проложены в толще стены, к ним ведет арочный мост.

К югу от первых ворот располагаются вторые ворота, которые ведут в город. Их обороняет прямоугольная башня (на фото виден ее фрагмент). Башню окружает бастион.

Отсюда начиналась боевая позиция ланга Прованса. Этот участок стены "виляет", образуя изгибы, позволяющие вести фланговый обстрел.

Так же на этом участке располагается три башни. Первая на фото не попала. Вторая - круглая, окруженная многоугольной стеной в основании.

Третья - квадратная, с такими же стенами вокруг и амбразурами.

Вся система фортификации боевой позиции Прованса хорошо просматривается на рисунке-реконструкции.


Круглая башня ланга Италии или Ф. дель Карретто первоначально была одними из городских ворот. Затем их замуровали и превратили в мощную башню. Она состоит из внутренней более ранней башни, вокруг основания которой проходит внешняя толстая стена. На вершине стены расположены отверстия для оружия. Внутри стен основания проходит коридор с амбразурами для поражения неприятеля внутри рва. Обращают на себя амбразуры на вершине башни и в стене, окружающей ее, выполненные в виде пушечных бойниц.

Дальше начинается фортификация торгового порта, крепостная стена повторяет изгибающиеся очертания бухты.

Ворота Святой Екатерины ведут из Еврейского квартала старого города к мельничному молу. Они устроены наискось к крепостной стене. Раньше ворота закрывались поднимающейся вверх дверью, а над ними находилась "поливалка".

Где-то посередине крепостной стены, вдоль порта находятся одним из самых красивых ворот - Морские ворота. Ворота усилены двумя башнями со стельчатым парапетом и навесными бойницами.

Над воротами сохранился рельеф с изображением Богородицы с Младенцем. Слева от нее изображен Иоанн Предтечи, справа - апостол Петр. Внизу находятся гебры Ордена, королевского дома Франции и Магистра д'Обюссона.

Дальше по набережной находятся ворота , которые в путеводителях значатся как Ворота Арнальда.


Вход в порт защищают с двух сторон мол и башня. С восточной стороны это Мельничный мол. В средние века от одного его конца до другого стояли ветряные мельницы, раньше их было до 15 штук, сейчас осталось только 2.

Где-то в 1440-1454 годах на краю мола была построена цилиндрическая Мельничная башня. Двери на нижнем этаже не было: вход находился на верхнем этаже. В нескольких метрах южнее от башни возвышалась друга башенка: находившаяся внутри нее спиральная лестница вела прямо на верхний этаж большой башни через подъемный деревянный мост. Из отверстия на западной стороне тянулась цепь, доходившая до стоявшей напротив башни Найяка. Сейчас на этом моле расположен коммерческий порт Родоса, где отправляются катамараны в Турцию, поэтому пройти туда у меня не получилось. Увидеть башню можно с моря или с набережной.

Так Мельничная башня выглядела во временя рыцарей.

На краю западного мола возвышалась прямоугольная башня Найяка, носившая имя построившего ее Великого Магистра. В 1863 году башня обрушилась из-за сильного землетрясения.
Сейчас от нее виднеется только основание.


В основании мола располагается башня и ворота Апостола Павла. Они контролировали движение из торгового порта в порт Мандраки и к молу Святого Николая. Центральную цилиндрическую башню окружает стена со стрельчатым парапетом.


Так выглядят остатки башни Найяка, мол и комплекс ворот Святого Павла сейчас.

А так выглядел во времена рыцарей. (А. Габриэль, Рисунок-реконструкция комплекса Ворот Апостола Павла, мола Найяка и Башни Найяка)

Фортификацию порта дополняет Башня Святого Николая - изолированное укрепление на краю мола.Построенная в ключевом месте обороны, эта башня защищала не только порт, но и всю северную сторону города. Поэтому во время обеих осад башня подвергалась яростным атакам турок. Макет фортификационного сооружения представлен внутри башни.


Остатки башни Найяка и форт Святого Николая в сумерках.

Это последнее укрепление портовой части города. От ворота Апостола Павла стены поворачивают на запад. В этом участке стены в XIX итальянцами построены Вороты Свободы, слева и справа от которых возвыщаются две башни с гербом магистра де Эредиа.

Дальше к западу стоит башня Апостола Петра - цилиндрическая башня, окруженная стеной с амбразурами.

От башни начинается маршрут по крепостному рву, тут стены поворачивают на юг и проходят вдоль Дворца Великиого Магистра.

С северной стороны дворец защищает башня, названная именем Великого Магистра Мауриса де Паньяка (Maurice de Pagnac), пробывшего им всего два года (1317-1319) и который официально так и не был утвержден Папой Римским.

Угол крепости, выходящий к воротам д'Амбуаз, защищен бастионом.

На этом основные фортификационные элементы крепости, которые мне удалось увидеть, заканчиваются.

После захвата Родоса Турками крепость отнюдь не была заброшена. Турецкие власти использовали ее по прямому назначению. Разрушенные после второй осады фрагменты были восстановлены. Конечно, производились какие-то изменения и достройки и облик крепости изменился, но это восточное влияние не так заметно, как на улицах самого города. Большинство строений, созаднных турками, были ликвидированы во времена итальянцев, а многие элементы разрушенные или преобразованные в период турецкого господства были восстановлены заново. Особенности итальянской реставрации того времени безусловно тоже внесли свои коррективы в облик крепости. Во время Второй Мировой Войны крепость подвергалась бомбардировкам, многие ее части в очередной раз были разрушены и дальнейшей реставрацией занимались уже греки. Не могу сказать ничего плохого, про старания реставраторов предыдущих поколений, но то, что творят с крепостью греки сейчас вызывает тихую грусть. Надеюсь, что крепостные сооружения все же сохранят в себе рыцарский дух, а не превратятся в унылый новострой.

Источники.
1) Много информации я взял из замечательной книги, купленной на острове и изданной на русском языке, "Родосские рыцари. Дворец и город." Илиаса Коллиаса. Желающим лучше узнать историю родосского рыцарства и глубже проникнуться средневековым городом настоятельно ее рекомендую. Несмотря на некоторые неровности перевода и небольшие неточности, книга очень информативна с одной стороны и достаточно легка для расслабленного чтения на пляже, с другой стороны.
2) Большую часть рисунков, а так же очень много информации по устройству различных элементов фортификации я взял из книги "The Fortress of Rhodes 1309-1522" Константина Носова. Очень ее рекомендую тем, кто желает глубже разобраться с принципами фортификации Родоса и их изменениеми со временем.


Cuprins

Bastioanele diferă de turnurile medievale. Ele sunt mai joase, de obicei înălțimea lor nu depășește pe cea a curtinei. Înălțimea mare a turnurilor medievale făcea dificilă escaladarea lor, dar au devenit ușor de distrus de către artilerie. Un bastion are de obicei în față un șanț și un glacis sau și un taluz. Taluzul proteja bastionul de focul direct al artileriei adverse, înălțimea neacoperită mică fiind dificil de lovit. Însă diferența de nivel destul de mare dintre fundul șanțului și parapet îl făcea greu de escaladat.

În contrast cu turnurile medievale, bastioanele aveau fețe drepte, nu curbe. Asta elimina unghiurile moarte din fața bastionului, de unde atacatorii ar fi putut executa foc direct asupra bastionului.

Bastioanele aveau o suprafață mai mare decât turnurile, ceea ce oferea spațiul necesar pentru amplasarea și manevrarea a mai multe tunuri.

Spre deosebire de turnuri, care erau realizate din piatră, bastioanele erau realizate din pământ, pentru a absorbi impactul ghiulelelor. Exemplele existente de bastioane sunt placate cu zidărie din cărămidă pentru a stabiliza pământul, dar nu în zona parapetelor, pentru ca bucățile de cărămidă desprinse să nu rănească apărătorii.

Dacă un bastion era cucerit, el oferea o poziție bună pentru atacatori, de unde puteau lansa noi atacuri. Unele tipuri de bastioane încercau să minimizeze aceste probleme. [4] Asta se obținea printr-o retragere traversată de un șanț, putând fi astfel izolat de fortificația principală. [5]


Watch the video: Rhodes Medieval Town Documentary Greece (July 2022).


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