John Roebuck (b.1718)

John Roebuck (b.1718)

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John Roebuck, the second of five sons of John Roebuck (c.1680–1752), a successful merchant, was born in Sheffield in 1718. After studying at the University of Edinburgh he became a physician. He moved to Birmingham where he set up a scientific laboratory. According to his biographer, R. H. Campbell: "Initially his activities were on a small scale, carried on from his own house and in his spare time, but they led to a series of inventions which proved useful in local manufactures, especially in the refining of gold and silver. They also showed the need for greater financial resources and wider commercial acumen than Roebuck possessed if his ideas were to bear fruit. This need led him into several partnerships throughout his life. The first, one of the few which brought Roebuck considerable financial success and launched him on subsequent ventures, was when he and Samuel Garbett (1717–1805), a successful entrepreneur in Birmingham, set up a refinery in Steelhouse Lane."

His research led to improvements in methods of refining precious metals and in the production of chemicals. In 1749 Roebuck and Samuel Garbett began the manufacture of sulphuric acid on a large scale at Prestonpans near Edinburgh. This acid replaced sour milk as a means of bleaching cloth.

In 1759 Roebuck, Samuel Garbett and William Cadell established the Carron Ironworks near Falkirk in Scotland. They also purchased nearby coal mines to provide fuel for his ironworks. The mines suffered from severe flooding and he recruited James Watt to help him build an engine to pump out the water. In 1763 Watt was sent a Newcomen steam engine to repair. While putting it back into working order, Watt discovered how he could make the engine more efficient. Watt worked on the idea for several months and eventually produced a steam engine that cooled the used steam in a condenser separate from the main cylinder. James Watt was not a wealthy man so he asked Roebuck to provide financial backing for the project. Roebuck agreed and the two men went into partnership. Roebuck held two-thirds of the original patent (9th January 1769) in return for discharging some of Watt's debts.

R. Campbell has argued: "The conception of the scale of the works and the adoption of modern methods of production may be attributed to Roebuck. They were to prove enormously beneficial in due course, but not immediately; what was evident much sooner was the inadequacy of the initial capital stock of £12,000. To enable the concern to continue, funds had to be sought from banks, by the introduction of new partners, and, with consequences which proved nearly fatal a few years later, by the issuing of short-term accommodation bills. Using short-term credit brought the company to the verge of collapse in the financial crisis of 1772."

In March 1773 Roebuck became bankrupt. At the time he owed Matthew Boulton over £1,200. Boulton knew about Watt's research and wrote to him making an offer for Roebuck's share in the steam-engine. Roebuck refused but on 17th May, he changed his mind and accepted Boulton's terms. James Watt was also owed money by Roebuck, but as he had done a deal with his friend, he wrote a formal discharge "because I think the thousand pounds he (Boulton) he has paid more than the value of the property of the two thirds of the inventions."

John Roebuck never recovered from this bankruptcy and he died in extreme poverty in Edinburgh in 1794. His grandson, John Arthur Roebuck (1802–1879), became a radical member of the House of Commons.

First Families of Virginia

First Families of Virginia (FFV) were those families in Colonial Virginia who were socially prominent and wealthy, but not necessarily the earliest settlers. [1] They descended from English colonists who primarily settled at Jamestown, Williamsburg, The Northern Neck and along the James River and other navigable waters in Virginia during the 17th century. These elite families generally married within their social class for many generations and, as a result, most surnames of First Families date to the colonial period.

The American Revolution cut ties with Britain but not with its social traditions. While some First Family members were loyal to Britain, others were Whigs who not only supported, but led the Revolution. [2] Most First Families remained in Virginia, where they flourished as tobacco planters, and from the sale of slaves to the cotton states to the south. Indeed, many younger sons were relocated into the cotton belt to start their own plantations. With the emancipation of slavery during the Civil War and the consequential loss of slave labor, Virginia plantations struggled to turn a profit. The First Families, albeit poorer than before, maintained social and political leadership. Marshall Fishwick says that by the 1950s, "the old-time aristocracy [had] not given up, or sunk into decadence as Southern novelists suggest." They adopted modern agricultural technology and co-opted rich "Yankees" into their upper-class, rural horse-estate society. [3]

Dr. John Roebuck

John Roebuck, the son of a master cutler, was born in Sheffield in 1718. Coming from a family of known dissenters, i.e. those who opposed the views of the established church, the normal channels of education were not open to him. He at first attended Philip Dodridge’s Academy in Northampton, where he quickly established himself as a gifted pupil, and then to Edinburgh University, where he studied medicine and chemistry. In 1738 he went on to the University of Leyden in Holland and graduated in 1743. Roebuck then returned to Birmingham where he set up a medical practice. However, he soon commenced experiments into industrial chemistry and this path led him into contact with local businessman, Samuel Garbett. Abandoning medicine, he, along with Garbett, set up a company, thought to have been for the recovery, using acid, of precious metals from old plated goods. Roebuck, using some of the knowledge gained at Leyden, then came up with an idea to mass-produce sulphuric acid. This involved the use of large lead tanks instead of the normal, fragile, glass retorts. The Birmingham Vitriol Manufactory, soon brought the partners a respectable income. However, the owner of the basic patent for the manufacture of sulphuric acid soon took legal action against them. It is thought that to avoid the English courts of law, the partners, in 1749, relocated to Prestonpans in Scotland. There they established the Prestonpans Vitriol Manufactory. In this east coast town, they came into contact with businessman William Cadell of Cockenzie.

It would seem, according to later events, that the pair were eager to diversify into any profitable project that materialised. Garbett, in 1751, was first to join with Cadell in establishing the Prestonpans Pottery. There is also evidence to suggest that the trio had also planned to embark in a “copperas plan”, the chemical outcome used in inks, tanning and in the coating of iron guns. This was abandoned for the adventure which became the smelting of iron using coked pit coals. It was Roebuck who experimented with the Darby method, and who was responsible for the eventual layout of the foundry near Falkirk, which became the mighty Carron Works. He also latterly gave it the name – The Carron Company, based on his inspiration in Shropshire – The Coalbrookdale Company.

However, even as the project at Carron was underway, John Roebuck got involved in a useless scheme mining coal at Bo’ness. This soon involved him more and more to the detriment of his interest at Carron. It was due to his ever-flooding coal pit that encouraged him to bring young James Watt to Bo’ness with the expectation of an efficient steam engine to pump out the water from the pit. At this stage Roebuck was living in Kinneil House, one of the family homes of the Duke of Hamilton, and Watt’s workshop there remains as a picturesque ruin. However, his debts soon consumed him and he was forced to pull out of the Carron Company partnership and his share in Watt’s invention. Bankruptcy followed. He spent the remainder of his life struggling with the coal business for which he was paid a wage. He also founded the Bo’ness Pottery Company in 1784.

No image of Dr Roebuck survives but we do have this description of him:

He was a man of middle stature, square in frame without being stout, ruddy in complexion with finely modelled features, which a bright hazel eye made luminous and pleasant. Attired for the most part in faded black he, when at Carron, and not in chatty converse with the more intelligent of the skilled workmen whom he brought there from time to time, was often to be found musing on the banks of the river Carron. Freemasonry took his interest, he was a member of Lodge Pythagoric at Bo’ness.

Dr Roebuck died on the 15th of July 1794 and his body was laid to rest in the Carriden Churchyard where friends erected a tombstone inscribed with his virtues. The text ends with these words:- “…… under this tombstone lies no ordinary man, John Roebuck MD.”

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Roebuck, John (1718-1794)

ROEBUCK, JOHN, M.D. (1718–1794), inventor, born in 1718 at Sheffield, was the son of John Roebuck, a prosperous manufacturer of Sheffield goods, who wished him to engage in and inherit the business. John had a higher ambition, and, after receiving his early education at the Sheffield grammar school, was removed to Dr. Doddridge's academy at Northampton. He became a good classical scholar, retaining throughout life a taste for the classics and he formed at Northampton a lasting intimacy with his fellow-pupil, Mark Akenside. Thence he proceeded to Edinburgh University to study medicine. There the teaching of Cullen and Black specially attracted him to chemistry. He became intimate with Hume, Robertson, and their circle, forming an attachment to Scotland which influenced his subsequent career. He completed his medical education at Leyden, where he took his degree of M.D. on 5 March 1742. A promising opening having presented itself at Birmingham, he settled there as a physician. He had soon a considerable practice, but his old love of chemistry revived, and he spent all his spare time in chemical experiments, particularly with a view to the application of chemistry to some of the many industries of Birmingham. Among his inventions was an improved method of refining gold and silver and of collecting the smaller particles of them, formerly lost in the processes of the local manufacturers. Stimulated by his successes, he established in Steelhouse Lane a large laboratory, and in connection with it a refinery of the precious metals. He associated with himself in the management of the laboratory an able business coadjutor in the person of Samuel Garbett, a Birmingham merchant. Roebuck became, in fact, what is now called a consulting chemist ( Prosser , p. 15), to whom the local manufacturer applied for advice, and thus a considerable impetus was given to the industries of Birmingham. The most important of his several improvements in processes for the production of chemicals at this period was one of very great utility in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. In the fifteenth century the German monk Basil Valentine had first produced oil of vitriol by subjecting sulphate of iron to distillation, and the process had been but little improved previous to 1740, when Joshua Ward facilitated the manufacture by burning nitre and sulphur over water, and condensing the resulting vapour in glass globes, the largest that could be blown with safety. For glass ​ globes Roebuck now substituted leaden chambers. The change effected a revolution in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, which was thus reduced to a fourth of its former cost, and was soon applied to the bleaching of linen, displacing the sour milk formerly used for that purpose. The first of the leaden chambers was erected by Roebuck and Garbett in 1746, and the modern process of manufacture is still substantially that of Roebuck ( Parkes , i. 474–6 cf. Bloxam , Chemistry, 1895, p. 220).

Encouraged by the success of the new process, Roebuck and Garbett established in 1749 a manufactory of sulphuric acid at Prestonpans, eight miles east of Edinburgh. This proved for a time very profitable, but the firm neglected at the outset to procure a patent for their invention either in England or in Scotland, and endeavoured to reap exclusive profit from it by keeping the process a secret. The nature of the process became, however, known in England through an absconding workman, and in 1756 it was used by rivals in England, and later by others in Scotland. In 1771 Roebuck took out a patent for Scotland (cf. specification printed in the Birmingham Weekly Post, 19 May 1894), and with Garbett sought to restrain the use of the invention in Scotland by others than themselves. The court of session decided against this claim, on the ground that the process was freely used in England, and therefore could be freely used in Scotland. A petition against this decision was in 1774 dismissed by the House of Lords (Journals, xxxiv. 76, 217).

It is uncertain whether Roebuck was still in Birmingham when he turned his attention to the manufacture of iron. With the death of Dud Dudley [q. v.] the secret of smelting iron by pit-coal instead of by charcoal, a much more expensive process, had expired or become latent. The smelting of iron ore by coke made from pit-coal was probably rediscovered by Abraham Darby [q. v.] at Colebrookdale about 1734, but Roebuck was undoubtedly among the first to reintroduce the industry into Britain, and, further, to convert by the same agency cast iron into malleable iron. If the iron manufacture was comparatively unproductive in England, it was virtually non-existent in Scotland, although a country abounding in ironstone and coal. After adding a manufacture of pottery to that of sulphuric acid at Prestonpans, Roebuck appears to have thought of trying in the same district the manufacture of iron on a small scale ( Jardine , p. 71). In the result there was formed for the purpose of manufacturing iron on a large scale in Scotland a company consisting of Roebuck and his three brothers, Garbett, and Messrs. Cadell & Sons of Cockenzie ( Parkes , i. 478). The latter firm had already made some unsuccessful efforts to manufacture iron. Every arrangement of importance in the establishment of the company's works was due to Roebuck's insight and energy. He selected for their site a spot on the banks of the river Carron in Stirlingshire, three miles above its influx into the Firth of Forth. The Carron furnished water-power, the Forth a waterway for transport, and all around were plentiful supplies of coal, ironstone, and limestone. The first furnace was blown at Carron on 1 Jan. 1760, and during the same year the Carron works turned out fifteen hundred tons of manufactured iron, then the whole annual produce of Scotland ( Smiles , Industrial Biography, p. 136). Large quantities of charcoal were used at first ( Scrivener , p. 84) but Roebuck's ingenuity brought the much cheaper pit-coal into play, both for smelting and refining. In 1762 he took out a patent for the conversion of any kind of cast iron into malleable iron by the ‘action of a hollow pit-coal fire’ (Specifications of Patents, 1762, No. 780). The use of pit-coal on a large scale required, however, a much more powerful blast than was needed for charcoal. Roebuck consulted Smeaton [see Smeaton, John ], in whose published ‘Reports’ (1812, vol. i.) are to be found accounts of several of his ingenious contrivances in aid of the operations at Carron. The chief of these was his production of the powerful blast needed for the effective reduction of iron by pit-coal. The first blowing cylinders of any magnitude constructed for this purpose were erected at Carron by Smeaton about 1760 (cf. Scrivener , p. 83, and Smiles , Life of Smeaton, p. 61). Besides turning out quantities of articles of manufactured iron for domestic use, the Carron works became famous for their production of ordnance, supplied not only to our own army, but to the armies of continental countries. It was from being made at Carron that carronades derived their name. The first of them was cast at Carron in 1779 ( Smiles , Industrial Biography, p. 137 n.) The Carron ironworks were long the largest of their kind in the United Kingdom, and are still productive and prosperous.

When the Carron works were firmly established in a career of prosperity, Roebuck, unfortunately for himself, engaged in a new enterprise which proved his ruin. Mainly to procure an improved supply of coal for the Carron works, he took a lease from the Duke of Hamilton of large coalmines and saltworks at Borrowstounness (Bo'ness) in ​ Linlithgowshire, which were yielding little or no profit, and about 1764 he removed with his family to Kenneil House, a ducal mansion which overlooked the Firth of Forth and went with the lease. Roebuck set to work to sink for coal, and opened up new seams but his progress was checked by water flooding his pits, a disaster which the Newcomen engine employed by him was powerless to avert. It was this difficulty which led to one of the most interesting episodes of his career, his intimacy with and encouragement of Watt, then occupied in the invention of his steam-engine [see Watt, James ]. Roebuck was intimate with Robert Black, then professor of chemistry at Edinburgh, who was a patron of Watt. Hearing from Black of Watt and his steam-engine, Roebuck entered into correspondence with him, in the hope that the new engine might do for the water in his coalpits what Newcomen's had failed in doing. Eventually Roebuck came to believe in the promise of Watt's invention, rebuking him for his despondency, and welcoming him to Kinneil House, where Watt put together a working model of his engine. Roebuck took upon himself a debt of 1,200l. which Watt owed to Black ( Smiles , Industrial Biographies, p. 139), and helped him to procure his first patent of 1769. Watt admitted that he must have sunk under his disappointments if he ‘had not been supported by the friendship of Dr. Roebuck.’ Roebuck became a partner with Watt in his great invention to the extent of two thirds. But the engine had not yet been so perfected as to keep down the water in Roebuck's mines. Through the expense and loss thus incurred Roebuck became involved in serious pecuniary embarrassments. To his loss by his mines was added that from an unsuccessful attempt to manufacture soda from salt. After sinking in the coal and salt works at Borrowstounness his own fortune, that brought him by his wife, the profits of his other enterprises, and large sums borrowed from friends, he had to withdraw his capital from the Carron ironworks, from the refining works at Birmingham, and the vitriol works at Prestonpans to satisfy the claims of his creditors. Among Roebuck's debts was one of 1,200l. to Boulton, afterwards Watt's well-known partner. Rather than claim against the estate Boulton offered to cancel the debt in return for the transfer to him of Roebuck's two-thirds share in Watt's steam-engine, of which so little was then thought that Roebuck's creditors did not value it as contributing a farthing to his assets ( Smiles , Life of Watt, p. 177).

Roebuck's creditors retained him in the management of the Borrowstounness coal and salt works, and made him an annual allowance sufficient for the maintenance of himself and his family. To his other occupations he added at Kenneil House that of farming on rather a large scale, and though, as usual, he made experiments, he was a successful agriculturist ( Wight , Husbandry of Scotland, iii. 508, iv. 665). He died on 17 July 1794, retaining to the last his faculties and his native good humour. He married, about 1746, Ann Ward of Sheffield, but left her unprovided for. His third son, Ebenezer, was father of John Arthur Roebuck [q. v.] Another grandson, Thomas, is separately noticed.

Roebuck was a member of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, and contributed to the ‘Philosophical Transactions’ (vols. 65 and 66). Of two pamphlets of which he is said to have been the author, one is in the library of the British Museum, ‘An Enquiry whether the guilt of the present Civil War in America ought to be imputed to Great Britain or America? A new edition,’ London, 1776, 8vo. Roebuck's verdict was in favour of Great Britain.

Roebuck was both warm-hearted and warm-tempered, an agreeable companion, much liked by his many friends, and exemplary in all the relations of private life. When he received the freedom of the city of Edinburgh during the provostship of James Drummond, he was assured that the honour conferred on him was ‘given for eminent services done to his country.’ Certainly the establishment of the Carron ironworks and the improvements which he introduced into the iron manufacture were of signal benefit to Scotland. Not only did it originate in Scotland a new industry which has since become of great magnitude, but it gave an impetus then much needed to Scottish industrial enterprise. Even the works at Borrowstounness, though ruinous to himself, contributed to the same end, so that the mineral resources of the district were developed with a spirit unknown before. Roebuck's personal failure there is to be ascribed mainly to the ultra-sanguine views which resulted from his success elsewhere.

[Memoir of Roebuck in vol. iv. of Transactions of the Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, communicated by Professor Jardine of Glasgow R. B. Prosser's Birmingham Inventors and Inventions Parkes's Chemical Essays, 2nd edit. Scrivener's Hist. of the Iron Trade Percy's Metallurgy, ii. 889 Smiles's Lives of Boulton and Watt Hunter's Hallamshire, ed. Gatty, p. 310 Webster's Patent Cases authorities cited.]

John Roebuck (b.1718) - History

After Major General Horatio Gates was defeated at Camden in August of 1780, the Continental Congress authorized General George Washington to appoint a new commander of the Southern armies. General Washington selected Major General Nathanael Greene, who had recently resigned as Quartermaster General for the Northern Theater. Major General Greene headed south. Upon his arrival, he split his small army, sending the recently-promoted Brigadier General Daniel Morgan to western South Carolina to menace the Provincial and Loyalist troops and attempt to threaten the British post at Ninety-Six.

Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwalls realized his predicament. If he pursued Brigadier General Daniel Morgan in the west then Charlestown would be wide open to an attack from Major General Nathanael Greene. If he went after Major General Greene, the Brigadier General Morgan would take Ninety-Six.

Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwalis responded by sending Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton, with about 1,000 soldiers, to Ninety-Six. He ordered Major General Alexander Leslie to hold Camden against any attack by Sumter and Marion or from Major General Greene. Then, Lord Cornwallis aimed the remaining one-third of his army for North Carolina, hoping to catch Brigadier General Morgan's army after Lt. Col. Tarleton defeated him in a battle.

Brigadier General Daniel Morgan had 600 Continental soldiers and seasoned Virginia militia men, together with another 500 untrained militia men. He decided to remain and fight Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton. Brigadier General Morgan placed his soldiers on a gentle but commanding hill, deploying them in three lines at Hiram Sanders' Cowpens (another source called this Hannah's Cow Pens). The most reliable soldiers among the Continental troops and Virginia militia were placed just forward of the crest. Below were two lines of Militia, the furthest forward being the best sharpshooters. Brigadier General Morgan did not expect that they would be able to stand against a line of British regulars, so he gave them explicit orders that they were to fire three rounds and then run to the place were the horses were being held. Brigadier General Morgan placed 130 mounted men in reserve under Lt. Col. William Washington.

Many of the militiamen had actually fought at Kings Mountain and were no longer afraid of the British bayonets. The Continenals with Brigadier General Morgan had been survivors of Charlestown, the Waxhaws, and Camden, and they had their own score to settle with Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton.

At 4:00 a.m., Lt. Col. Tarleton's forces broke camp, and Brigadier General Morgan was duly notified. At 8:00 a.m., Lt. Col. Tarleton reached the Patriot lines. The morning was cold, possibly below freezing, with high humidity. Brigadier General Morgan went up and down the line repeating the famous words: "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" A fierce cry went out from the British forces: Brigadier General Morgan responded loudly, "They give us the British Hallo, boys. Give them the Indian Hallo, by God!" A wild cry went out from the Patriots. The sharpshooters took aim and fired. They did their job, firing two or three times, then running back to the second line as previously directed.

The British continued to advance and, as the second line began to fire, the enemy began to run up the hill with bayonets ready. The second line fled. British dragoons then tried to cut down the fleeing Patriots. Just then, Lt. Col. Washington's cavalry appeared and chased away the British cavalry. Brigadier General Morgan was awaiting with the militiamen where the horses were, and he managed to turn them back around toward the battle. Meanwhile, the final line of Continentals was holding off the British. The tactical situation forced them to retreat slightly.

Lt. Col. Tarleton thought the battle had been won, and he ordered a general charge. As they charged, Brigadier General Morgan ordered the retiring force of Continentals to turn and fire. At the same time, the militiamen were coming up on the left. Once the British were halted in their tracks, the Patriots began charging with bayonets. Just then, the Militia attacked from the left, and Lt. Col. Washington's cavalry attacked from the right. In what would become a classic military victory, one of the most famous of the war, almost the entire British force was captured.

One source asserts that the British had lost 910 men, 110 killed and 800 taken prisoner, as well as all of their supplies. The Patriots lost 73 soldiers, 12 killed and 61 wounded. Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton rode to the British Legion dragoons that had remained in reserve but it was hopeless. For the first time he could not get them to obey his orders. About 200 dragoons disobeyed him and left the field. When they saw Lt. Col. William Washington's dragoons riding fast towards them, yelling "Buford's Play! Tarleton's Quarter!" they fled into the woods.

Lt. Col. Tarleton had his horse shot out from under him, but Robert Jackson, the Assistant Surgeon of the 71st Highlanders, rode up and gave Tarleton his horse. As Lt. Col. Washington came into view, the British officers wheeled around and stopped. The two opposing forces stopped and "dared each other to advance." Cornet Thomas Patterson of the 17th Dragoons ended the stalemate and charged at Lt. Col. Washington. When Cornet Patterson swung his sword at Lt. Col. Washington he was "cut down by the Colonel's orderly serjeant."

Brigadier General Daniel Morgan knew that Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis would be coming after him to retrieve all of the prisoners, so he withdrew to North Carolina. Col. Andrew Pickens was left behind to bury the dead and to take care of the wounded. Col. Pickens gathered up what equipment might be useful, collected the dead, and after taking the paroles of the British, placed the wounded in tents under a white flag with medical personnel to await the expected return of Lt. Col. Tarleton. Col. Andrew Pickens would be commissioned a Brigadier General later that month due to his heroic efforts on that cold day at the Cowpens.

Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis had been instructed by General Sir Henry Clinton not to invade North Carolina until both Georgia and South Carolina were securely in British hands. Major General Nathanael Greene decided to let Brigadier General Daniel Morgan lead Lord Cornwallis out of South Carolina then to recombine the two forces and to attack the British far from their supply lines. Lord Cornwallis took the bait and followed Morgan into North Carolina.

Known Patriot Participants

Known British/Loyalist Participants

Brigadier General Daniel Morgan - Commanding Officer

MD-DE Light Infantry Battalion led by Lt. Col. John Eager Howard with the following units:
- Delaware Company - Capt. Robert H. Kirkwood with 63 men
- 1st Maryland Company - Capt. Richard Anderson with 60 men
- 2nd Maryland Company - Capt. Henry Dobson with 60 men
- 3rd Maryland Company - Lt. Nicholas Mangers with 60 men

State Troops led by Capt. Edmund Tate with the following known units:
- Virginia Company - Capt. Andrew Wallace with Capt. Conway Oldham
- Virginia State Troops - Capt. John Lawson with 50 men
- Hammond's SC State Troops - Major Samuel Hammonds with Capt. Joseph Pickens and 60 men
- North Carolina State Troops - Capt. Henry Connelly with 40 men
- Augusta County (VA) Riflemen - Capt. Patrick Buchanan

3rd Regiment of Continental Light Dragoons (VA) led by Lt. Col. William Washington with 82 men and the following known officers:
- Major Richard Call
- Capt. William Barrett
- Capt. Robert Cook (Dobbs County, NC)
- Capt. George Farragut (Dobbs County, NC)
- Capt. Churchill Jones's Troop - Lt. Henry Bell
- Capt. William Parsons
- Capt. John Thompson (Wake County, NC)

1st Regiment of Continental Light Dragoons (VA) detachment with 10 men led by Capt. John Watts

Nelson's Regiment of Virginia State Cavalry led by Major John Nelson with 15 men, including Capt. Clement Read

Georgia Cavalry led by Major Benjamin Jolly with 20 men

State Militias led by Col. Andrew Pickens (SC) with the following units:

Campbell's Virginia Militia Regiment led by Major David Campbell with Capt. Robinson and Capt. Hanley and 50 men

Triplett's Virginia Battalion of Militia led by Major Francis Triplett with the following known companies:
- Augusta Riflemen - Capt. James Taite with 50 men
- Fauquier County Militia - Capt. John Combs and Capt. James Winn
- Rockbridge Rifles - Capt. James Gilmore and Capt. John McCampbell, with 42 men
- NC Light Dragoons Regiment detachment led by Capt. Mordecai Clark - with

SC Militia led by Col. Andrew Pickens with the following units:

Little River District Regiment of Militia led by Col. Joseph Hayes, Major James Duggin, Major Garret Smith, and Major Samuel Taylor, with fourteen (14) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Anderson
- Capt. James Dillard
- Capt. Thomas Duggin
- Capt. Samuel Ewing
- Capt. Robert Gillam, Jr.
- Capt. William Harris
- Capt. James Irby
- Capt. Pendleton Isbell
- Capt. James Miller (killed)
- Capt. John Ridgeway, Sr.
- Capt. Lewis Saxon
- Capt. Samuel Sexton
- Capt. James Starke
- Capt. Isaac White

2nd Spartan Regiment of Militia led by Col. Thomas Brandon, Lt. Col. William Farr, Lt. Col. James Steen, Major Benjamin Jolly, Major Joseph McJunkin, and Major Thomas Young, with the following twelve (12) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Samuel Caldwell
- Capt. Lewis Duvall
- Capt. Robert Faris
- Capt. William Grant
- Capt. Aquilla Hollingsworth (killed)
- Capt. Joseph Hughes
- Capt. John Lindsay
- Capt. Robert Montgomery
- Capt. Samuel Otterson
- Capt. Thomas Price
- Capt. John Putman
- Capt. William Young

Roebuck's Battalion of Spartan Regiment of Militia led by Col. Benjamin Roebuck and Major John Moore, with twelve (12) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Andrew Barry
- Capt. Jeremiah Dickson
- Capt. John Lawson
- Capt. David McDowell
- Capt. James McDowell, Sr.
- Capt. Samuel Nisbett
- Capt. Major Parson
- Capt. Thomas Parsons
- Capt. George Roebuck
- Capt. James Smith
- Capt. George Taylor
- Capt. Dennis Tramell

Upper Ninety-Six District Regiment of Militia led by Col. Andrew Pickens, Lt. Col. Glenn Anderson, Lt. Col. Robert Anderson, Lt. Col. James McCall, and Major Samuel Taylor, with the following nine (9) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Caldwell
- Capt. Francis Carlisle
- Capt. John Cowan
- Capt. Shadrack Inman
- Capt. John Irwin
- Capt. Robert Maxwell
- Capt. Andrew Miller (killed)
- Capt. James Pettigrew
- Capt. Joseph Pickens

1st Spartan Regiment of Militia led by Col. John Thomas, Jr., with eight (8) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Alexander
- Capt. John Collins
- Capt. Thomas Farrow
- Capt. John Files, Sr. (wounded)
- Capt. Charles James
- Capt. John Rainey
- Capt. John Roebuck
- Capt. William Smith

Fairfield Regiment of Militia detachment of three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Adair
- Capt. James Davis
- Capt. James Reid

Turkey Creek Regiment of Militia detachment of three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Henry Lisle
- Capt. John Moffett
- Capt. John Thompson

Lower Ninety-Six District Regiment of Militia detachment led by Major Samuel Hammond, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Abner Hammond, Sr.
- Capt. Moses Liddell

Lower District Regiment of Militia detachment led by Col. David Glynn, with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. William Taylor

New Acquisition District Regiment of Militia detachment led by Col. Samuel Watson, Lt. Col. William Bratton, and Major John Wallace, with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. John Henderson

Hill's Regiment of Light Dragoons detachment led by Col. William Hill, with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Thomas Shannon

Unknown Regiment detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Jamison (POW)

NC Militia Brigade led by Col. Charles McDowell with the following known units:

Burke County Regiment of Militia (NC) led by Col. Charles McDowell and Major Joseph McDowell, with the following twenty (20) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Alexander
- Capt. John Beverly (Wilkes County)
- Capt. George Cathey
- Capt. Gilmore
- Capt. Samuel Hampton (Surry County)
- Capt. John Harden
- Capt. Michael Harrison (Washington County)
- Capt. John Holmes
- Capt. Alexander Irvin
- Capt. John McDowell
- Capt. Joseph McDowell
- Capt. Samuel Miller
- Capt. John Morgan
- Capt. William Murry
- Capt. William Neill
- Capt. David Vance
- Capt. George Walker
- Capt. Joseph White
- Capt. William Wilson (Rowan County)
- Capt. Samuel Woods

Lincoln County Regiment of Militia detachment led by Major John Barber, Major Joseph Dickson, and Major Francis McCorkle, with the following seven (7) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Philip Dellinger
- Capt. Thomas Lofton
- Capt. Samuel Martin
- Capt. John Murray
- Capt. Isaac White
- Capt. Thomas White
- Capt. Henry Whitener

Guilford County Regiment of Militia detachment of five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Thomas Archer
- Capt. Daniel Gillespie
- Capt. Johnson
- Capt. John McRea
- Capt. William Wilson

Surry County Regiment of Militia detachment of five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Robert Cleveland
- Capt. Joseph Cloud
- Capt. William Terrell Lewis
- Capt. William Meredith
- Capt. Henry Smith

Rowan County Regiment of Militia detachment led by Lt. Col. David Caldwell, Major John Lopp, and Major Daniel McKisick, with the following five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Alexander
- Capt. Abel Armstrong
- Capt. Daniel Bryson
- Capt. Thomas Cowan
- Capt. Joseph Cunningham

Rutherford County Regiment of Militia detachment led by Major William Rutherford and Major Reese Porter, with the following five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Benjamin Harden
- Capt. Jesse Knighton
- Capt. Jesse Lytle
- Capt. Moses Shelby
- Capt. William Whiteside

Wilkes County Regiment of Militia detachment of two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Daniel Bailey
- Capt. George Baker

Sullivan County Regiment of Militia detachment led by Major Evan Shelby, Jr. with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Roger Topp

Warren County Regiment of Militia detachment led by Major Charles Davis, with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Sterling Clarke

Caswell County Regiment of Militia detachment of two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Benjamin Douglas
- Capt. John Oldham

Mecklenburg County Regiment of Militia detachment of two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Irby
- Capt. James Nathaniel Martin

Randolph County Regiment of Militia detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. William Gray

Orange County Regiment of Militia detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. William Ray

Granville County Regiment of Militia detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. William Bennett

Montgomery County Regiment of Militia detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Pilcher

Wayne County Regiment of Militia detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Willoughby Williams

NC Light Dragoons Regiment detachment led by Major Samuel Henderson, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Galbreath
- Capt. Solomon Wood

GA Militia led by Major John Cunningham with 490 men in the following units:

Major James Jackson's Regiment led by Capt. George Walton

GA Refugees led by Capt. Joshua Inman

Wilkes County Regiment of Militia (GA) company led by Capt. Richard Heard Total Patriot Forces - 2,400

Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton - Commanding Officer

7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusiliers), 1st Battalion led by Major Timothy Newmarsh with Capt. Charles Helyar and 167 men

71st Regiment of Foot (Fraser's Highlanders), 1st Battalion led by Major Archibald McArthur with 263 men, including Lt. Roderick MacKenzie and Capt. Robert Duncanson with his Grenadier Company

Royal Regiment of Artillery, 4th Battalion, 6th Company led by "Unknown," with 18 men - 9 from the 7th Regiment of Foot, and 9 from the British Legion, and 2 guns

71st Infantry Regiment (Highland Scots) led by "Unknown" with two battalions:
- 1st Battalion, Light Infantry Company - 35 men
- 2nd Battaltion, Light Infantry Company - 34 men

Prince of Wales American Regiment led by Lt. Thomas Lindsay, with Capt. Daniel Lyman's Light Infantry and 25-50 men

16th Regiment of Foot, Light Infantry Company led by Lt. John Skinner with 41 men

British Legion Dragoons with 250 men and the following known officers:
- Capt. David Ogilvie
- Capt. David Kinlock
- Capt. Richard Hovenden
- Capt. Thomas Sanford
- Capt. Francis Gildart
- Lt. Nathaniel Vernon - Capt. Jacob James's Troop

British Legion Cavalry with 201 men and the following known officers:
- Capt. Patrick Stewart
- Capt. Thomas Miller
- Capt. Charles McDonald
- Lt. Donald McLeod - Capt. Rousselet's Company
- Lt. "Unknown" - Capt. James Edward's Company
- Lt. "Unknown" - Capt. Donald McPherson's Company

SC Loyalist Volunteers led by Capt. Alexander Chesney with 50 men Total British/Loyalist Forces - 1,050

Illinois Watch Company

Total Production: Approx. 5.7 Million Watches

Year S/N
1872 5000
1873 20,000
1874 50,000
1875 75,000
1876 100,000
1877 145,000
1878 210,000
1879 250,000
1880 300,000
1881 350,000
1882 400,000
1883 450,000
1884 500,000
1885 550,000
1886 600,000
1887 700,000
1888 800,000
1889 900,000
1890 1,000,000
1891 1,040,000
1892 1,080,000
Year S/N
1893 1,120,000
1894 1,160,000
1895 1,220,000
1896 1,250,000
1897 1,290,000
1898 1,330,000
1899 1,370,000
1900 1,410,000
1901 1,450,000
1902 1,500,000
1903 1,650,000
1904 1,700,000
1905 1,800,000
1906 1,840,000
1907 1,900,000
1908 2,100,000
1909 2,150,000
1910 2,200,000
1911 2,300,000
1912 2,400,000
1913 2,500,000
Year S/N
1914 2,600,000
1915 2,700,000
1916 2,800,000
1917 3,000,000
1918 3,200,000
1919 3,400,000
1920 3,600,000
1921 3,750,000
1922 3,900,000
1923 4,000,000
1924 4,500,000
1925 4,700,000
1926 4,800,000
1927 5,000,000
- Sold to Hamilton -
1928 5,100,000
1929 5,200,000
1931 5,400,000
1934 5,500,000
1948 5,600,000
- -

Be sure to use the serial number on the movement (the works) of the watch. Do not use the serial number from the watch case.

Can’t find your serial number in the table? Click here for an explanation and example of how to use our serial number tables.

Need help finding the serial number on your watch? Click here for instructions on how to identify and open most common case types.

At Renaissance Watch Repair, we are experts in the repair and restoration of Illinois watches. We are also always looking for Illinois Watches to purchase. Please contact us if you have any questions about the repair of your vintage Illinois watch.

John Roebuck blev født i Sheffield, hvor hans far havde en blomstrende fremstillingsvirksomhed. Efter at have gået på Sheffield Grammar School og Dr. Philip Doddridges akademi i Northampton, studerede Roebuck medicin i Edinburgh, hvor han udviklede en interesse for kemi ved at følge forelæsninger af William Cullen og Joseph Black. Han fik til sidst eksamen som læge fra Universiteit Leiden i 1742. Roebuck åbnede lægepraksis i Birmingham, men brugte en stor del af sin tid på kemi, især dens praktiske anvendelser. Blandt de vigtigste af hans tidlige resultater på dette område var introduktionen i 1746 af blykondenseringskamre ved fremstilling af svovlsyre. Ώ] ΐ] Sammen med Samuel Garbett byggede han i 1749 en fabrik i Prestonpans i Skotland til produktion af syren, og i en årrække havde de monopol. Da han ikke havde udtaget patenter kunne Roebuck ikke forhindre andre i at gøre brug af hans metode.

Roebuck blev derefter involveret i fremstillingen af jern, og i 1760 grundlagde han Carron Company jernværket i Carron, Stirlingshire. Her indførte han forskellige forbedringer i produktionsmetoderne, herunder omdannelse (patenteret i 1762) af støbejern til smedejern.

Roebucks næste foretagende var knap så vellykket. He lejede en kulmine i Bo'ness som skulle levere kul til jernværket i Carron, men da han gravede efter nye kullag stødte han på så store mængder vand, at minens Newcomen dampmaskine ikke kunne holde minen tør. Da han hørte om James Watts dampmaskine tog han kontakt til opfinderen. Denne maskine, som dengang var på et tidligt udviklingstrin, viste sig også utilstrækkelig, men Roebuck fik en stor tro på dens fremtid, og til gengæld for to-tredjedeles andel i opfindelsen hjalp han Watt med at perfektionere detaljerne. Roebucks vanskeligheder i kulminen, sammen med et mislykket forsøg på at fremstille baser, bragte ham i økonomiske vanskeligheder, og han overdrog sin andel i Watts maskine til Matthew Boulton til gengæld for annullering af en gæld på £1200. Selv om Roebuck efterfølgende måtte opgive sin andel i Bo'ness works, fortsatte han med at lede dem og bo i det nærliggende Kinneil House, hvor han beskæftigede sig selv med landbrug af en betydelig størrelse.

Roebuck døde i 1794 og blev begravet på Carriden Churchyard i Bo'ness. Α]

Sears, Roebuck & Co. Chicago (IL)

Sears in the Beginning:
The concept for Sears, Roebuck & Company began in 1886 as a young entrepreneur, Richard Warren Sears, was working as a station agent for the Minnesota and St. Louis Railroad in North Redwood. The twenty-three year-old son of a Minnesota farmer passed the time by pouring through the multitude of sales literature that was being delivered by rail. Intrigued, he became familiar with pricing structures and liked the idea that products that were manufactured in one part of the country could be sold to folks in another part of the country. Now during that time, merchandising transactions in the United States were very often marred by unscrupulous sellers trying to fleece prospective buyers, and get-rich-quick schemes were rampant. However, young Sears became the beneficiary of one of the most common schemes of the day, and used the profits to build an empire.

In 1887, Sears hired watch repairman Alvah Curtis Roebuck to handle many of the returns that needed repaired. Roebuck was not only Sears's first employee, but he later became co-founder of Sears, Roebuck & Company. Roebuck's contribution to the corporation was short-lived, however, and due to personal considerations he sold his share of the company to Sears in 1895 for $25,000. Sears himself clashed with new business partner, Julius Rosenwald, and quit the business in 1908. He later sold his portion of Sears stock in 1913 and died that same year. To this day, Sears's advertising and promotional skills remain legendary, and today's most sophisticated marketer's continue to employ the tried and true concepts that Sears made famous.

All of the Silvertone changers were made by Alliance Manufacturing (makers of the Tenna-Rotor).

Country Year Name 1st Tube Notes
USA 58 Silvertone 9157 Ch= 528.51373 24AEP4 24" b/w TV with US standard VHF Tuner Channels 2 thru 13, 14 thru 83 UHF. Some Models with.
USA 59 PC-9104GY Ch= 456.51340 17CTP4 b/w TV with US standard VHF Tuner Channels 2 thru 13, 14 thru 83 UHF. Tubes UHF: 17. Some .
USA 39/40 Silvertone Order= 57D 5828 Molded case comes in choice of two colors: Cherry Red or Ivory. See also the later Silv.
USA 39&ndash41 Silvertone Order= 57D 05808 Plays with cover closed.
USA 39&ndash41 Silvertone Order= 57D 05807 Plays with cover closed.
USA 38 Silvertone 6016 Ch= 101.512 1C7G Bias Cells 3 Volt.
USA 39&ndash42 Silvertone Order= 57D 05827 See also model 5827 Ch= 134.903 or model 5827 Ch= 138.903.
USA 39&ndash41 Silvertone Order= 57D 05806 Wood case, covered with waterproof Blue fabrikoid.
USA 39/40 Silvertone Order= 57D 06228
USA 35 Silvertone 7142 6D6
USA 38 Silvertone 6002 Ch= 100.195 [early] 6A8G There is also a different model 6002 late with Chassis 132.818.
USA 58&ndash61 Silvertone 2039 Medalist Order=57G 2039 Sears Silvertone Medalist 2039 Big size analogue alarm clock, snooze function, gray .

Further details for this manufacturer by the members (rmfiorg):

"Silvertone" record label from Sears, Roebuck & Co. as of February 14th, 1927. The record was manufactured by Columbia Phonograph Co.

Sears catalog front page, a special catalog 1932 for Musical instruments, Pianos, Radios, Phonographs (and Radio-Phonographs, Portables Phonograph Records, Radio Tubes).

The first Sears Silvertone Superheterodyne found in the season catalogs are the model Silvertone 1320C , a 8-tube radio phonograph console and the 7-tube cathedral Silvertone 1585 with five knobs: Sears catalog #163, Fall & Winter 1931/32 on page 219 - and on page 216 the 6-tube Silvertone console 1401 with two knobs, on page 218 as Gradfather clock masterpiece Silvertone 1391 or 1390. The Sears schematic page 204 show for the same chassis: 1390, 1400 (see 1401), 1402 (see 1403), 1404 (no 1405?), 1406, 1470 and 7009, but due to offers with and without tubes with different numbers, most probably 1401 and 1403 etc. are the same. Rider's 2-14 omits 1406, 1470 and 7009. Schematic page 213 shows the models 1430 and 1510 as 10-tube super with tuning meter.

The 1320C has four knobs, forming a triangle with the escutcheon! See general remarks about Silvertone models 1928 to 1936 in this link.

I found no Superhet in the #162 catalog for Spring & Summer 1931, but there are existing Superheterodynes, which must have reached the market before the one mentioned above, maybe only advertised in ads and/or radio catalogs.
The 1320C features already the forth "generation" of otherwise similar chassis. At least some models before were made by Colonial Radio Corp., Buffalo, NY.

The very first Silvertone superhets
The first Silvertone Superhet chassis is most probably represented with the schematic containing models Silvertone 1320, 1322, 1324, 1326 and (slightly different) model 1450. There was even necessary a revised schematic with an other mixer system, grid mixer instead of a cathode mixer (and some small other details). Both I call here below version "A" and we don't (yet) use separate model pages for this slight schematic differences but show both schematics. There is also the 6-tube superhet family starting with 1390 in this period, but I deal here with the family starting with 1320.

Very fast was made a new chassis with quite a different setting of tubes etc. I call this only here version "B", since some models have the same model designation but an other look for the knobs. In common they are 8 tube Superheterodynes with remote cut-off screen-grid RF amplifier and IF, parallel 2 x UX247 output.

"A" with 3 x 235: 3 knobs in v (triangle, top down) tuning in chassis.
Page 187 of the Sears schematic book 1928 to 1936 lists the following five models for the same schematic and parts etc.:
Silvertone model 1320, 1322, 1324, 1326 and 1450. I call it "A" and believe that it was the first series, which probably caused problems due to poor development of the placement of tubes and other parts and their wiring. This shows quite a bad placement on page 189 for the first 4 models. The model 1450 (page 190) differs mainly in the transformer and it has a filter condenser R6081. All can also have a 25 cycle transformer. Tuning condenser is underneath in the chassis.
"A" has the tubes 235 RF, 227 osc, 235 1st det, 235 IF, 224 2nd det etc., 2 x 247 and 280.
The original schematic (page 186) shows a cathode mixer, a revised schematic (page 188) a grid mixer plus small other differences.

Wiring picture scanned by member John Kusching.

Schematic also in Rider's # 2, pages 11, 12 (or 524-19 and 524-20) for the Sears 1320, 1322 and 1324
and Riders #2, pages 25, 26. 27, 28 (or 208F to 208I) for the Colonial model 47 and model 48.

The revised schematic for Colonial model 47 "revised" and model 48 "revised" can not be found in Rider's 2, 3 or 4, but turn up on volume 10 on the Colonial MIsc. Page 10-4 (bottom) as drawn Septbember 22, 1931/Dec. 18, 1931. But this is still for "A"!
The "B" version was made by Sentinel Radio (manufacturer 106).

Pictures by courtesy of guest radiomaniac1949, ARF forum. (for "A")

"B" with 2 x 235: 3 knobs in a straight line, tuning above chassis:
Probably in the same year we find some of them with a renewed chassis, we call "B".
The models with the same schematics etc. are Silvertone model 1320, 1324, 1326X, 1386, 1454, 1456, Radiogram console 1531 and 7004 (part list 106 on page 185). Tuning condenser is on top of the chassis.

"B" has the tubes 235 RF, 227 osc, 224 1st det, 235 IF, 224 2nd det etc., 2 x 247 and 280.
Schematic 109 (also B109) is made by Sentinel Radio (United Air Cleaner Corp.), not anymore by Colonial!

Photos by courtesy of member Gerry O'Hara, Canada. (for "B")

This is additional information to users who click the link on Sears, Roebuck models included in the Silvertone service information 1928-1936 and the Sears Catalogs of that period.

With this method we can easily give common information for each model and at the same time adapt on one place.

John Kusching, USA, has bought the book "Silvertone Radios, Service Information 1928 thru 1936" and is intending to scan and to load up all these service documentations. This is huge work, since he has shown with his work for RCA and other US brands that he uploads top quality information. See the Schematic Finder. On top of that he also completes models which are not yet complete.

Years ago I had bought all catalog pages from Mark V. Stein who did the book "Sears Silvertone Catalogs 1930-1942". I told John Kusching that I will try to let scan here, prepare and upload these pages with every written detail by Monique Ehrat as a paid job. I will update or create the models according to the notes in the catalog. It would be nice to get more sticky articles like repair stories or even explanations about a certain model family like here below model 1587.

Designation (naming) of the models

For Sears, Roebuck & Co. Chicago, IL, we face quite some challenges regarding the model designations:

1 Brand and Model designation
Not all models carry the brand Silvertone and therefore we can not generally add a brand to the company. Internal we use two fields for the model designation. Meteor, Sears Roebuck and Allstate are for instance other brands of Sears. For USA, normally the second field is for a chassis number, beginning with Ch= .

We begin with the brand Silvertone (if so branded) and add the model number or name in that field.
Generally the brand Silvertone was introduced in 1924. It was also then not always used.

2 Order number (second field)
At the beginning there is a model number in catalogs plus a different order number.
There are different order numbers for the same model for easy payment and adain often two more for the set including accessories like tubes, batteries, antenna etc.

We will use two where necessary: with and without tubes etc.
We might list in the text the other order numbers and enter prices.
Where different voltages or cycles become an other number, we will use those and not create a new model.
The syntax is the following (example): Order= 57DM 1110 or 1112
We do not enter the additional 1/4 and we do a space to show the usual number without catalog code.

3 Manuafacturer
Sears is a special case like for instance Lafayette. Sears is a general store and catalog seller, not a manufacturer and not a brand. Quite against other beliefs, Sears in fact did manufacture quite some radios, when establishing "King Quality Products, Inc." (KQP) in 1924. In 1929 Sears sold KQP to Colonial Radio Corporation for contracted radio production. Until WW2 Colonial was the largest manufacturer for Sears and even stopped selling radios as Colonial in 1935. But Sears bought from quite a variety of manufacturers. Mark Stein has noted them for some models and we add the information in the notes if possible.

4 Chassis number
If there is a catalog number entered in the designation field two, then we put the chassis number behind, after a comma (,). See an example here.

This number can also tell us which manufacturer was involved.
You can help us in this respect by taking a photo of the sticker on the chassis and uploading in big size. Often it is and the three digits before the dot indicate the manufacturer. A next post by John Kusching will reveal the names with a list.
As a guest: Please use the contact form to send us such photos including the main photo (3 dimensions) and some details. We will add with a courtesy remark in the caption and will fill in the manufacturer name to the model.

5 Catalog numbers
Mark Stein has noted on page 3 the catalog numbers, starting with #160 for pages 512-522 (not 897-910) for the Spring & Summer catalog 1930. But the pages for this show C101 or P151 B-C.
Since we show always also the whole catalgo page, we don't care for that number but might add here a list of the catalogs and their name/date. Stein is ending with catalog #183 for 1941. We will try to find more catalog pages for before and after - and there are also catalogs in between, not covered. We don't know if they would produce new models, but I doubt it.
Example: 1930 Midsummer Sale Catalogue from Boston Mass with a front cover number B446 and back cover C452P-B-K-MN has 176 pages and only page 150 shows radios:
an 8-tube All Electric Console Radio Receiver for $57.50 and a 8-tube all electric table model radio for$39.95 and a 7-tub Battery operated radio for $29.95 all with black and white illustrations.
We have to find more Sears catalog pages for radios!

Advertisements etc. (sources)
Ads are the best proofs for the date of market introduction, if we scan them inclusive the source (newspaper, magazine, event etc.). With a catalog we can only tell that in that year or season the model was offered to a certain price. It is a combination of all kind of information, including folders and fliers. The schematics show us technical data but they can only tell that the market introduction was before - sometimes years before.

Dating the models
When we have only a second source information and/or a date of a schematic, we often have to put a question mark to the year, or even two if we can only guess. When we have a catalog information with its date and name, then we can prove the year of existance in the market, but not necessarily the selling season or first year of market introduction. A combination with earlier or later ads will lead to the right season(s). Interesting is to see different prices for the same model during the time. Since most radios are sold in the "old year", before Christmas, quite in contrary to cars, we name the first hit to the market in the "from year" and try to find the "to year", resulting in a model season or several seasons. Winter is the "radio time", Summer is the "Car time" (mostly sold in Spring).

Pending work on Sears
We list the Sears Manufacturing Co. (where?). and to that the following 5 models which are not included at Sears, Roebuck: Acme Reflex A, B, Standard (two) and Torodyne. Should probably not be split from the main name - for searching reasons.

We have inconsistencies in the naming which we get rid of when working on a model only.

Later Sears adds a leading zero to the 4 digit number. We might be able to drop that without loosing "findability".

We have to clear a possible Silvertone model 41, a Low-Boy from around 1929/30 (eMail 9.6.12) with plate R 5761 Col. (probably a Colonial made).

Most people and catalog buyers from Sears will not care and not know if a Silvertone Radio was made by Sears, Roebuck or by others. For us collectors it matters at least if we are in need of a schematic and don't find one under Sears or Silvertone. For most interested collectors it matters in principle.

It is not true that Sears did not manufacture its own radios but it is even less true that Sears should have manufactured most of the Silvertone radios. We know from the post above: "King Quality Products, Inc." (KQP) was a Sears company from 1924 for producing radios, but sold in 1929 to Colonial Radio Corporation. But also from 1924 to 1929 many radios came from different manufacturers. Sears was not interested to communicate this and even in 1931 (Spring & Summer), in the catalog #162, page 483 you can find "stories" like this:

"Sears, Roebuck and Co. were among the first to take part in screen grid development. Just as soon as the Screen Grid tube had been perfected beyond the experimental state and our own laboratories proved its merit we introduced a Silvertone all-electric screen grid set. In fact, we were the first to build a high grade screen grid for less than $ 100. We are the only radio manufacturer who has consistently LED in building high class radio receivers at a LOW price. No other has so steadily "undersold" the entire country."

You find that page on model 1096C which is also called 1096 or 1097 (right column of the picture with the entire page). You can compare this with "similar stories" from for instance Lafayette. There you can click "about these catalogs" to know more.

The earliest Sears Radio Service Manual that seems to exist is called "Service Information and Parts Lists for Silvertone Radios 1928 Thru 1936", which was compiled by R.T.Lowenthal (Dept 657). The front cover of this manual also has the following in the upper right corner: "DIV. 57 RL1, May 1937". The manual contains 980 pages and on the inside cover, the manual states that the book is property of Sears, Roebuck and Co. and that "Your store is charged with copy number xxxx", where the store number was stamped. As such, these manuals were serialized and assigned to specific Sears stores.

The manual identifies the actual radio manufacturer using a 3 digit "Source Number", which is listed for each radio model in the book, usually on the schematic itself or on the parts list. Sometime after 1936, the radio manufacturers for Sears began stamping a chassis number onto a metal plate, with the plate attached to the back of the chassis itself and the chassis number taking the form xxx.yyyy or xxx-yyyy. The xxx was always the manufacturer code and the yyyy (which could be a 3 or 4 digit number) identified the chassis.

On page 12 of the Sears 1928 thru 1936 service manual is an "Index of Source Numbers", which is more commonly referred to as the manufacturer codes. Another source of these codes can be found on page 239 in "The Sears Silvertone Catalogs 1930 - 1942", by Mark V. Stein. Over time, Sears has re-assigned many of the original manufacturer codes for the manufacturers that have gone out of business. The latest Sears (and Craftsman) manufacturer codes can be found here: Sears Manufacturer Codes

Below is a table that maps the Manufacturer codes to the manufacturers using the three sources mentioned above. A "Yes" under the Source column indicates that the source confirms the mapping of the manufacturer to the code number. Companies listed under the Source 3 column indicate that the code number has been re-assigned to a new manufacturer. Codes below 140 come directly from the Sears (Craftsman) web page and so are listed directly in the Manufacturer Column.

Source 1 = "Service Information and Parts Lists for Silvertone Radios 1928 Thru 1936"

Source 2 = "The Sears Silvertone Catalogs 1930 - 1942"

Source 3 = Sears Manufacturer Codes (Code has been reassigned if company is listed)

++ Indicates a Code identified in later Div 57 Standard Nomenclature Manuals from Sears

Code Manufacturer Source 1 Source 2 Source 3
100 Stewart Warner Yes Yes -
101 Colonial Radio Yes Yes Atlas Press
102 Majestic Radio & Tel. Yes Yes Walker Turner
103 Emerson Radio & Phono. - Yes Sarlo Power Mower
104 Phonovision (Formerly Corona Radio & Tel. Yes Yes -
105 Continental Radio & Tel. (Later renamed Admiral Radio & Tel. Yes Yes -
106 Electrical Research Lab (ERLA) (Formerly Sentinel Radio Corp.) Yes Yes Whirlpool
107 Howard Radio Co. Yes Yes -
108 Automatic Radio Mfg Co. Yes Yes Covel Mfg Co
109 Detrola Radio Corp. Yes Yes AA Engineering
110 Air-King Products Co. Yes Yes Whirlpool
111 Rola Mfg Co. ++ - - Watson Mfg Co.
112 - - Parks Tool Co.
113 Mission-Bell Radio Mfg - Yes Emerson Electric Co.
114 Pioneer GEN-E Motor Corp. (Pincor) - Yes Yes
115 Parris-Dunn - Yes Rixon
116 Electro-Acoustic - Yes Emerson Electric Co.
117 Grigsby-Grunow Radio Corp (Grunow) Yes Yes -
118 Wholesale Radio Service Co. (Lafayette) Yes Yes -
119 Automatic Radio Mfg Co. Yes Yes Frigidaire
120 Sterling Sales & Mfg Co. Yes Yes -
121 Zenith Radio Mfg Co. Yes Yes Dills & McGuire
122 Warwick Radio Mfg Co. Yes Yes Blair Mfg
123 Crosley Distributing Corp. Yes Yes Yard-Man
124 Operando Mfg Co. Yes Yes -
125 Universal Batter Co. - Yes -
126 RCA Mfg Co. (RCA Victor) - Yes -
127 Continental Motor - Yes -
128 Crowe Nameplate & Mfg Co. - Yes E.T.Rugg
129 Jackson Products - Yes Mono Mfg Co.
132 Noblitt-Sparks Ind. (Arvin) - Yes -
133 International Radio Corp. (Kadette) - Yes American Yard Products
134 Wilcox-Gay Corp. - Yes -
135 Sonora Radio & Tel Corp. - Yes Skil/Bosch
137 Conley - Yes Toro Mfg Co.
138 Erwood Sound Equipment Co. - Yes -
139 General transformer - Yes Chamberlain
140 Air-King Products Co. - Yes -
143 Fisher - - *
164 Freed - - *
176 Murata - - Yes
190 Pioneer - - Yes
216 Phonemate - - Yes
222 Panasonic Video/Audio - - Yes
256 Emerson Electric - - Yes
264 Emerson Electric - - Yes
274 RCA - - Yes
278 General Electric - - Yes
289 Sharp - - Yes
302 IBM - - Yes
330 Apple - - Yes
362 General Electric - - Yes
363 General Electric - - Yes
366 Koss Electronics - - Yes
367 AT&T - - Yes
452 AT&T - - Yes
457 Code-A-Phone - - Yes
459 Technics - - Yes
474 Sony - - Yes
478 Tele-Tone - - *
480 Bose - - Yes
528 Warwick Electronics Inc. - - *
529 Warwick Electronics Inc. - - *
540 Harmon Cardon - - *
547 Westinghouse - - *
548 Audio Industries - - *
549 Hallicrafters - - *
552 Cobra - - Yes
562 Toshiba - - Yes
564 Sanyo - - Yes
565 Sanyo - - Yes
566 Packard Bell - - Yes
568 Panasonic - - Yes
575 Sharp - - Yes
604 Digital Equipment Corp. - - Yes
626 Magnavox (Philips) - - Yes
640 Cerwin Vega - - Yes
683 Philco (Italy) - - Yes
716 H.H.Scott/Emerson - - Yes
721 LG Electronics - - Yes
723 Yamaha - - Yes
733 Fairbanks Morse - - Yes
758 Emerson Electric - - Yes
768 Technics (Matsushita) - - Yes
773 Marantz - - Yes
864 Zenith - - Yes
911 General Electric - - Yes
923 Hewlett Packard - - Yes

* - Source for this code was Sears Employee

Sivertone was a brand name used by Sears, initially for phonographs and musical instruments and in 1919 introduced for radios.

Almost all products were purchased directly from manufacturers.
The chassis number seen at the chassis label contains the manufacturers source code: the leading three digits are the manufacturers key.

100 Stewart-Warner
101 Colonial (formerly King Quality)
102 Majestic R&T (formerly Case Electric)
103 Emerson
104 Phonovision (formerly Corona)
105 Continental (later renamed Admiral)
106 ERLA (formerly Sentinel)
107 Howard
108 Automatic Radio, Boston
109 Detrola

110 Air King
113 Mission Bell
114 Pincor
115 Parris-Dunn
116 Electro-Acoustic
117 Grigsby-Grunow (Grunow)
118 Lafayette (Wholesale Radio Service)
119 Automatic Radio, Minneapolis

120 Sterling
121 Zenith
122 Warwick
123 Crosley
124 Operadio
125 Universal Battery
126 RCA Victor
127 Continental Motor
128 Crowe
129 Jackson

132 Noblitt-Sparks (Arvin)
133 International Radio (Kadette)
134 Wilcox-Gay
135 Sonora Radio & Television
137 Conley
138 Erwood
139 General Transformer

Mark V.Stein, the Sears Sivertone Catalogs 1930-1942

Gemäß Funkschau 8/April 1981 wechselt Sears vom langjährigen Lieferanten Matsushita bei Videorecordern zu Sanyo, der ab 1981/82 20 - 30.000 Stück VHS und Beta Geräte pro Monat fertigt und unter Handelsnamen verkauft.

6. Lobotomies—Hacking Away Troubled Brains

Dr. Walter Freeman performing a lobotomy. (Credit: Bettmann/Getty Images)

Walter Freeman thought he𠆝 found a way to alleviate the pain and distress of the mentally and emotionally ill. Instead, he created one of history’s most horrific medical treatments. Freeman developed his procedure, which became known as a prefrontal lobotomy, based on earlier research by a Portuguese neurologist. Early versions of Freeman’s 𠇌ure” involved drilling holes in the top of his patients’ skulls, and later evolved into hammering an ice pick-like instrument through their eye sockets, to sever the connections between the frontal lobes and the thalamus, which he believed to be the part of the brain that dealt with human emotion.Freeman soon teamed up with James Watts, and after practicing on cadavers, they performed their first procedure on a live patient in 1936, a woman who suffered from agitated depression and sleeplessness. It was deemed a success. But subsequent surgeries were not. Patients were often left in a vegetative state, experienced relapses, and regressed physically and emotionally. As many as 15 percent died. One of the most infamous victims was Rosemary Kennedy, the sister of future President John F. Kennedy, who was left incapacitated and spent the rest of her life needing full-time care.

Freeman was as much a showman as he was a doctor, traveling to 23 states to demonstrate his miracle cure. In all, he performed some 3,439 lobotomies—some on patients not yet in their teens. And despite the obvious risks and lack of concrete success rates, hospitals willingly let Freeman continue, perhaps because lobotomized patients were considered �sier” to deal with. Everything changed in 1967, when Freeman performed a lobotomy on one of his original patients, a housewife living in Berkeley, California. This time, he severed a blood vessel and Mortenson died of a brain hemorrhage𠅏inally putting an end to Freeman’s haphazard brain hacking.

Watch the video: John Roebuck (July 2022).


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