Gavia AM-363 - History

Gavia AM-363 - History

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Any of several fish-eating diving birds including the common loon.

(AM-363: dp. 530 -1.184'6", b. 33', dr. 9'09" s. 1O k.
cpl. 104; a. 1 3", 4 40mm.; cl. Admirable )

Gavia (AM-363) was laid down as PGE-907 on 8 July 1943 by Williamette Iron & Steel Corp., Portland, Ore. launched 18 September 1943. sponsored by Mrs. James E. Ray; reclassified as A3I-363 On 27 September 1943 and commissioned as Gavia (AM-363) 23 July 1945, Lt. K. P. Billhardt in command.

After trials in the Columbia River, Gavia departed Astoria, Ore., 10 August 1945 for mine warfare exercises at San Pedro and San Diego, Calif. She departed San Pedro 26 September and reached Honolulu 4 October 1945. After additional minesweeping training in Hawaiian waters, she departed Pearl Harbor 26 October for minesweeping operations in the Far East. Proceeding via Eniwetok and Saipan, she arrived Wakayama, Japan 27 November.

Steaming to Sasebo 3 December, Gavia silent the remainder of the month sweeping for mines in Tsushima Strait, Okino Shima, Tachabana Wan. She continued minesweeping exercises at Sasebo until 17 February 1946 then sailed for Buckner Bay, Okinawa. After serving as reference ship for Japanese minesweepers clearing waters of Miyako Jima, she arrived Subic Bay 10 March and removed her ordnance gear. She departed 0 April and reached Shanghai 13 April. She decommissioned there 20 May 1946 and was turned over to the State Department for transfer to the Chinese Maritime Customs. Her name was struck from the Navy List 10 July 1946

Gavia received two battle stars for World War II service.

The History of FADA Radios

Frank Angelo D'Andrea (born 1888, Salerno, Italy <1>) was the creator of FADA Radios.
The D'Andreas' recently widowed mother moved the family to New York in 1890 when Frank was 18 months old.
At age 11, he had to leave school and go to work, but spent his nights studying drafting and mathematics.
Frank's youth endeavors included a newspaper boy, stable boy and boxer.
He left all this behind when in 1913 he graduated from an engineering course,
and began working for the Frederick Pierce Co. doing experimental work for inventors.
Guglielmo Marconi came to the lab one day and had Frank work on a radio apparatus for him.
Shortly after this meeting, Frank left the Pierce lab and began a job with Dr. Lee De Forest, inventor of the audion tube.
Frank worked with De Forest as the first voice was broadcast using De Forest's tube.
Frank soon became a plant manager for the De Forest company.
In 1918, Frank Andrea went into business for himself, with his 16-year-old half brother.
They rented space in a Bronx butcher shop to begin production of crystal radio parts and kits.
He married his chidhood sweetheart Concetta Ambrose. <1>
For the name of his company he adopted his initials: F.A.D.A.
When the radio boom hit in late 1921, FADA couldn't produce crystal detectors fast enough,
and soon was renting space in three different places on the same street, Jerome Ave. in the Bronx.

Frank's brilliant foresight recognized that crystal radios would be replaced by tube radios and around 1923,
FADA started manufacturing vacuum tube radios which were well accepted by the public and experienced a rapid growth.
FADA licensed the Neutrodyne radio technology from the Hazeltine Corporation.
In 1925, Frank expanded marketing to Canada and the UK.

1925 FADA radio models

It seems though, that Frank Andrea's employer-employee relationships were very poor,
and in 1926, 500 of his 600 employees went on strike.
In 1927, his chief engineer, Lewis Clement, left for a better offer with another company.
Soon after, his second in command of the company, Dick Klein, had quarreled with D'Andrea and left also.
In 1928, FADA status was in the top five of radio manufacturing companies, despite these issues.
The following year of the stock market crash, FADA more-or-less fell apart.
Radio production dropped drastically when it was sold in 1932
to a group of Boston businessmen and in 1934 FADA filed for bankruptcy.

Frank retired in 1932 quite wealthy, but decided after 2 idle years that retirement was not for him.
Frank Andrea created a new radio company, Andrea Radio Corp. in 1934.
His $10,000 investment grew into a 2nd fortune. <1>
The Radio Retailing ad from September 1938 seen below shows Andrea Radio Corp.
marketing radios in direct competition with the new FADA Radio & Electric Co.
An early brochure below shows a distributing network in Europe was also established.
In 1938 Andrea Radio Corp began television production, and in 1939
displayed their new television model at the New York World's Fair.
As with other radio manufacturers during World War II,
they contributed to the production of military electronics.
Frank continued running the company until his death at the age of 77 (Dec 22, 1965).
His business was continued by his son F.A.D. Andrea, Jr., and his daughter Camille.

Frank and his daughter, Camille on the cover of Radio & Television News, May 1950.

"No history of the radio or television industry would be complete
without the saga of Frank A.D. Andrea. "

In 1961 Andrea became a public corporation now trading under the ticker symbol ANDR.
During the 1970s and '80s, Andrea was a big supplier for Boeing, Lockheed and others.
In 1990 the name was officially changed from Andrea Radio to Andrea Electronics Corp.

FADA gears back up in 1935 under new direction and leadership,
revived as the FADA Radio & Electric Co., Inc.
New owners purchased a factory site at 30-20 Thompson Ave., Long Island City, NY.
J.M. Marks took over the helm and never minced words about its position in the radio industry,
". our company is the original Fada Company and controls all the rights and trade-marks, patents, etc.,
dating from its inception since 1921 and that the firm of F.A.D.Andrea Inc., selling Andrea Radios,
outside of the fact that Frank Andrea is the head of the company, has no more relationship
to our trade-mark (Fada) than Mr. DuPont has to the General Motors Co., with which he
was importantly affiliated at the time of its inception.
Our company is a bonafide licensee of RCA as well as Hazeltine." (Radio Today, June 1937)
Marks was a great marketer and played a big role in the push for retail promotions and
encouraged radio cabinets with bright colors.

The re-established FADA was an early success.
FADA's "Coloradio" and "Fadalette" lines in 1936-37 radios sold well.
The radios were made with colorful plastics, some with chrome or gold trim.
FADA produced what have become some of today's most sought after radios.
Some designs were so popular that they were shared with, or "borrowed" by other radio makers.
In 1938, a couple years after the Coloradio line was released,
Australian radio maker "Hotpoint" issued the "Bandmaster" model with a nearly identical cabinet.
Other than the dial and knobs, every other design line was copied.

In 1941, Fada's president JM Marks recruited well-known radio pioneer McMurdo Silver.
McMurdo Silver radios of the 1930s were beautiful high-end, chrome plated radios.
In 1938 Silver had sold out the remainder of his company to his competitor, E.H. Scott Radio Laboratories.
He was appointed as vice-president of FADA's Special Equipment Division,
handling commercial and National Defense radio production.

Radio Today, July 1941

In 1942 when World War II began, consumer radio production
was halted at all factories mandated by the government.
All factory resources were focused on the contribution to the war effort.
FADA production shifted to equipment made only for military use from 1942-1945.
This oscilloscope was made by FADA for the US Navy.

When World War II ended, FADA returned to consumer radio production.
FADA picked up where they left off, continuing sales of the popular catalin FADA "Bullet".
Before the war they were sold as the model 115, issued now as the model 1000.
Other radio cabinet molds were also revived after the war
with updated circuitry and newly assigned model numbers.
Many of the radios that Fada produced in the late '30s and '40s are highly prized by radio collectors.
Today, the FADA model 115 or 1000 "Bullet" radio has become a true icon in design history.
There is no documentation on the designer of this great piece.
Different size reproductions have surfaced over the years,
and the design surfaces frequently from ad graphics to clocks and cookie jars.

Like radio-makers Belmont and Wells-Gardner, FADA also sold their radios to independent distributors
who displayed their own retail brand names on the radios.
Some of FADA's bakelite and wood models from the late 1930s were labeled "Co-op", "Lafayette" or "Dictograph".
Dictograph Products Company Inc patented the "Silent Radio Mystic Ear" pillow speaker and sold the idea to FADA
who then incorporated the idea into many different models.
In some instances, a "Dictograph Silent Radio" or "Co-op" metal nameplate was applied over the top of the embossed FADA name.
The Lafayette equivalents of the FADA L96 and L56(bakelite series) models were identical
except that Lafayette had the molds adjusted so their name was embossed in the plastic, in place of the FADA name.

FADA was very resourceful when designing cabinets for various electronic designs.
Many of their radio cabinets, both wood and the bakelite models, were made to house different chassis designs.
AM only, AM/Shortwave, AC/DC, farm battery sets, and other options led to different chassis mounted into identical cabinets.
This explains why so many different FADA model numbers are found on what look like the same radios.
Some cabinet designs accommodated a 2 or a 3 knob chassis with only the knob hole placement shifting,
and still leaving a geometric design in tact as seen above.
Different knob and dial designs were also shared between models.

In 1947, Marks announced FADA's expansion and move across the Hudson River
to Belleville, New Jersey into a larger updated plant.
Much of the expansion included space for other electronics including
FADA "Motoset" automobile radios and also televisions for the emerging television market.
FADA branded radios and televisions were successfully marketed into the 1950s.

Keeping up with the latest technology, FADA offered a full line of television models and
also introduced an FM-only radio in 1947, the model 795 (shown in an ad below).
The last consumer radios FADA made were in 1955.
An ex FADA distributor emailed me info on a model in the collection,
"This is a model 660. These were the last new radios that FADA produced and were made in 1954 & 1955.
They came in Ebony, Ivory, and Maroon with a gold grille on the Maroon & Ivory, Silver on the Ebony models.
There was a very good looking replacement for the 790 scheduled but they ran out of money before it went into production.
As an ex FADA distributor I saw these items at the plant in 1953/54."

Today, FADA radios from the past are well-known to collectors
and many FADAs are the highlights in any radio collection.
Values of FADA radios differ greatly, with the primary factor being their cabinet design.
FADA radios on todays collectors market can range from $40 to hundreds and even thousands!
FADA made some fabulous wood cabinet floor and table radios that are sometimes overlooked
because the FADA name is so closely associated with their famous plastic models.
Some FADA wood models with high-tube-count designs from the mid '30s are highly sought after,
and can command as much as the expensive catalin models.
A few wood versions of the iconic catalin "bullet" and "temple" models were also made.
The wood model 252 is one example.

1933 "Century" model 105 (ch.RN)

Fada's plastic radio colors and materials is the big factor in their collecting appeal.
The red plaskon "Coloradio" cabinets and any of the catalin cabinets bring the highest prices.
In the mid-'40s, FADA referred to their catalin cabinets as "Fada-lucent".
The Bakelite Corporation referred to all their different plastics as "Bakelite" which have now
been broken down into different categories bakelite, catalin, plaskon, beetle and styrene by collectors today.
(see our Plastics page that shows the differences between catalin, bakelite and others.)
Although a few of the wood table models were offered with a ivory, ebony or Chinese red laquered cabinet,
FADA never offered any of the plastic radio models with a painted finish. (wood Fada 351JV in ivory)
In the late '40s, FADA began using polystyrene for some radio models,
and although they were able to reproduce the marbling effects,
they did not have the depth and lustrous qualities of catalin.
The blue styrene model 1005 will bring top dollar.
Once you have seen a beautifully marbled catalin radio in person,
you quickly realize why there is the incredible demand for them.
The look and feel of catalin radios it truly unique and unparalleled with their glass-like surface.

In the case of the Fada model L56 bakelite/plaskon/catalin models
they are all rare, but the "Bakelite Color Series" radios, although valued less,
are actually more elusive than the catalin versions,
most likely due to the fact that they were introduced at the same time -
and although the plaskon versions are so beautiful,
anyone faced with the choice, would likely have chosen the similarly priced,
fabulously marbled, glass-like qualities of the catalin cabinets over the plaskon versions.
The unfortunate, unforseen shrinkage characteristic of catalin plastics has made
any Fada catalin radio rare to find without damage.
Some Green Jade or Blue Lapis Lazuli catalin examples have sold for over $10K at auction!

Click on the FADA radio collection below for much more information on each radio and close up photos.

(from the 1950 model 550 or 855)

Below are a few interesting articles from the 1930s
regarding the divide between the Fada name and Frank Andrea.

(Aug 1936 Radio Retailing)

(Sept 1936 Radio Retailing)


The catalin Fada L56 is found in the 1940 ad below, boasting of the use of green in the cabinet grille.
The Bakelite Corporation referred to all their different plastics as "Bakelite".

(some of the Dictograph Mystic Ear Silent Radio models)





(Radio Retailing, MARCH 1943)

(Radio News, October 1945)
These two ads came out just as WWII was ending, including a message
that FADA is ready to make radios again for the public, waiting for the government's OK.
Both subtly include in the artwork, one of FADA's iconic models, the 652 "Temple".

(Radio News, 1946)



(Radio Retailing, November 1947, FADA's FM-only model 795
and catalin model 711 and the P80 portable)

(Radio Retailing, 1948)

(Andrea Radio, Sept 1938 Radio Retailing)

(Andrea Radio, January 1938 Radio Retailing)



And after.

Frank Zappa 1996 promo-only CD release, "Left of the Dial"
featuring a wildly painted FADA model 652 "Temple" radio on the cover.

In early 1937, Marks released the private color coding
of resistor components used in the earlier FADA radios,
and began using the standard RMA color coding for components.

Radio Today, March 1937

(Radio News, August 1941)

<1>The American Weekly, May 27, 1951, "Two Fortunes for the Immigrant Boy" by Sam Shulsky.
<2>, "About History", 2019.

See many more beautiful radios inside Classic Radio Gallery!

1936 Sparton model 557 mirrored radio

Copyright Classic Radio Gallery
All pages created by Merrill L. Mabbs

Gavia 1988: Andy Hampsten&rsquos Epic Stage

Andy Hampsten rode into cycling legend almost 26 years ago, when a blizzard engulfed the Passo Gavia, and the Giro directors refused to cancel the stage. It was epic stuff for fans, but a living hell for the riders. PEZ-fan Richard Clayton re-created the play-by-play with the help of Davis Phinney & Ron Keifel.

This story was recreated by PEZ-Fan Richard Clayton, with the help of Davis Phinney & Ron Keifel.

Passo Gavia &ndash June 5, 1988
Redlands California in 1988. 87 degrees. The local news paper shows Andy Hampsten has the lead in the Giro and I thought: Cool!! I had no idea what had happened. For 25 years I have learned as much as possible about that day.

&mdash Welcome to stage 14 from Chiesa in Valmaleneco to Bormio. It is raining in Northern Italy. Raining hard! And it&rsquos cold! Weather reports from the course &ndash especially the Gavia pass are sketchy and race organizers are not sharing info if in fact they have any. Mike Neel and Jim Ochowitz have made a call to a restaurant at the top of the Gavia and the report is snow. According to Ochowitz the 7-Eleven Hoonved team support are in local ski shops buying cold weather ski gear for the team in case the weather is as bad as it&rsquos suggested to be. We asked Davis Phinney the mood of the team. His reply: &ldquoThere is a lot of trepidation about this stage both because of the climb and the weather.&rdquo Trust me, that word rings ominous right now looking at this weather and knowing what&rsquos ahead. There are a lot of distant stares from the riders.

Race Situation So Far
Italy&rsquos Franco Chioccioli (Del Tongo) is still leading the race at 64 hours, 31 minutes, 45 seconds and wears the leader&rsquos pink jersey. In 2nd and 3rd are Urs Zimmerman (Carrera) at 33 seconds and Roberto Visentini (Carrera) at 55 seconds. This is the second time since winning the &rsquo86 Giro that Visentini has been in a fight for team leadership with a non-Italian teammate. Last years Giro between Irishman Stephen Roche and Visentini was a full on war. Visentini is finding himself in familiar territory. In 4th is Flavio Guipponi (Del Tongo) at 1:10. American Andy Hampsten is in 5th at 1:18 and is wearing the blue combined points jersey. When we asked him about having the jersey he said: &ldquoI&rsquom glad right now to have any jersey because they&rsquore wool and warm.&rdquo Finishing the top ten is Jean-Francois Bernard (Toshiba-Look) at 1:26, Erik Breukink (Panasonic- Isostar) at 1:45, Beat Breu (Panasonic) at 2:48, Marco Giovanetti (Del Tongo) at 3:07, and former World Champion and Giro Champion in &rsquo79 and &rsquo83 Giussepe Saronni (Del Tongo) at 3:25. Second place in last year&rsquos Tour Pedro Delgado (Reynolds) is in 14th place at 4:43.

To add insult to injury the stage today starts down hill into bucket loads of cold rain. Davis Phinney talked about Andy and about the team&rsquos preparations. &ldquoAndy is riding well and this is an important day. The team is strong and we&rsquore ready to defend his position. We purposely train in Colorado in poor weather and we pride ourselves on being tough.&rdquo &ldquoAndy is from North Dakota and has developed a toughness for foul weather. He is well prepared and will be the &lsquoHard Man&rsquo of the day.&rdquo Davis also let us know that team support is ready with extra cold weather gear and hot drinks for the descent into Bormio.

The rumors of snow are starting to grow and the race starts in gray gloomy conditions. Television images now confirm snow on both climbs and it is near white out conditions on Gavia. The pace looks more like an effort to stay warm than any plausible race strategy. Some riders are starting to suggest that if the snow is bad enough they will stop and protest.

The Gavia has not been a part of the Giro since 1960 when Luxembourg&rsquos Charlie Gaul won the stage ahead of eventual winner Jacque Anquetil and second place Gastone Nencini. All three Tour de France and Giro winners.

The Giro has taken on a one dimensional tone over the years with strong Italian personalities shaping the race for Italian interests and Italian teams and is making a push to be more on par with the Tour de France. According to Hampsten: &ldquoThe 7-Eleven sponsors know this is primarily an Italian event so a win would be important.&rdquo &ldquoHoonved on the other hand has twenty years of sponsorship and they fully understand the magnitude of the Giro d&rsquoItalia in both European and International sports.&rdquo The stage today could explode the Giro internationally. The difficult Gavia and Slelvio stages have been included in the Giro this year due to slumping tv and advertising interests. There is very little chance the race organizers will cancel this stage regardless of how bad the snow is.

We are on the flat section before the Aprica and no one has turned a pedal in anger. We just rode up beside Andy. He has Phinney, Bob Roll, Ron Kiefel, Dag Otto Lauritzen, Raul Alcala, Doug Shapiro, and Jeff Pierce surrounding him on the road to keep him safe. We asked how he felt. His blank look said more than his response. &ldquoWe&rsquore wet! We&rsquore getting soaked to the skin. These clouds are so low and we&rsquore just being belted on! It&rsquos going to be cold going up and all of the riders are scared.&rdquo Andy looked at Bob Roll, &ldquoThis will probably be the hardest day on the bike of our lives!&rdquo

The climb is starting up the Aprica at 12 km and 2000 feet at 6.4% followed by a 1500 foot descent. The snow just started and we are only 200 meters above sea level. Passo di Gavia is 16.7 km with an average 7.9% grade and a maximum 16% grade. Gavia summits at 2618 meters. That&rsquos 8589 feet.

During the first weeks of the race the 1966 winner of the Giro Gianni Motta has become a friend and ally of 7-Eleven he told Andy he can win the race and that Gavia is where he can take the maglia rosa. We asked Andy about the conversation and he kinda chuckled saying: &ldquoI told Gianni thanks for the compliment but he let me know the Italian teams were not prepared for how hard the climb would be.&rdquo Gianni raced against some of the greatest in cycling history including Jacques Anquetil, Felice Gimondi and Eddy Merckx. It is very cool that an Italian winner of this race has been so supportive of this team. Andy and all of the guys on 7-Eleven have said the same. Since 1985 7-Eleven has impressed the Italian tifosi and Europeans with their ability to not just compete but win. Both Ron Kiefel and Andy won Giro stages in &rsquo85 with the encouragement of Greg Lemond and Andy has won the Tour of Switzerland twice. This is a complete team today.

Mike Neel shared how the team prepares for cold and wet: &ldquoLanolin all over, not just legs. Some riders have added Cramers for heat. Each rider has their own preference for how hot they like it!&rdquo He also said in addition to winter ski gear and Oakleys they had neoprene gloves which Andy now has.

The weather is deteriorating . Not that it hasn&rsquot been really bad, but fog is setting in and the snow is wet and sloppy. The roads are ride-able but we&rsquore still at lower altitudes. The cold weather gear most of the riders have is soaked and has to weigh at least 10 kilos. Any riders serious about racing over the Gavia will have to shed most of their cold weather gear on the final climb. Going up will be do-able, but going down will be beyond bad.

Before today&rsquos start, technical race director and former Giro winner Francesco Moser urged race director Vincenzo Torriani to cancel the stage. Torriani told him: &ldquoThe show should go on and the riders should suffer through.&rdquo In the past when Moser was racing he would have used his influence to prevent hard climbing stages. With Moser retired the organizers have made the race more difficult and dramatic and Hampsten has been given a race that suits his climbing strength.

Through Aprica
The race has summit-ed the Aprica and we are still at groupetto pace with riders shivering in misery. The Italians are asking Andy to ride &ldquoPiano, Piano!&rdquo That&rsquos not going to happen. Over the top and on the descent it looks like the Del Tongo team is starting to set the pace for Chioccioli. The organization at the front is very loose and most riders still appear to be in survival mode. Hampsten and 7-Eleven are literally in the middle of negotiations with the entire peleton to race the final climb. Some riders are threatening to stop before the climb all together and others just don&rsquot want to race in such miserable conditions. Everyone knows that Andy is riding well and needs tough climbing to gain time. Jean Francoise Bernard said: &ldquoAndy is the strongest in the race so far and this stage and the Stelvio stage have been targeted by all the favorites as critical.&rdquo Andy is keeping everyone on their bikes so far and should be recognized for his negotiating skills. This is real corporate boardroom kinda stuff. All at 25 mph on a bike in the snow.

Johan Van Der Velde who is in the purple points leader jersey jumped away toward the climb. Van Der Velde has won the Giro points jersey twice and he won the white jersey in the 1980 Tour de France. He is down to short sleeves, team shorts, shoe covers and no gloves. An earlier break with stage 3 winner Swiss Stephan Joho (Ariostea) and Italian Roberto Pagnin (Gewiss-Bianchi) is up the road but neither is a threat and honestly they may just be trying to stay warm. 7-Eleven continue bringing up hot tea keeping Andy ready for what lies up the road and the lead group is starting to shed cold weather gear for the climb.

The Gavia Starts
Passing the town of Pointe di Legno and crossing the wooden bridge signals the start of the Gavia. Every rumor of snow at the top of Gavia has been completely confirmed. There are riders still debating a strike and someone just yelled: &ldquoHey Andy. You&rsquore not going to attack are you?&rdquo A cold determined stare seems to be the only answer.

Del Tongo is setting tempo on the climb and the field is slowly stretching out. Van Der Velde is off the front with what is now a nice lead. If he is first over the top he will win today&rsquos stage. The road will climb another 4 km from here then it pitch up to 16% and turn to dirt. Everyone knows Andy will attack soon and after winning the Selvino stage two days ago he has proven he has the strength to separate himself off the front.

7-Eleven has done a great job delivering Hampsten on the Gavia and he is in attack mode. Everyone&rsquos face shows a determined resignation to the suffering that has already started. The first hairpin reveals a 16% grade sign and as expected Andy attacks in his 39×25. The front of the race is starting to stretch. The final selection has started with Hampsten, Chioccioli, Urs Zimmerman, Eric Breukink, Bernard and Delgado. Chioccioli is on Andy&rsquos wheel and his face has gone slack. He has an uncanny lean gaunt resemblance to the great Campionissimo Fausto Coppi and has been given the nickname Coppino. He won the white jersey in the &rsquo83 Giro and is a real contender with Del Tongo. If he gets full support today he could secure his leader&rsquos jersey.

The weather report from race radios at the top is not good but the roads are clear enough to pass. The lead riders begin slogging through the thin layer of mud and snow and are following in the tire tracks of cars to find the best path. The grupetto or &ldquolaughing group&rdquo has formed at the back, however no one is laughing.

Hampsten Attacks
The race is now down to its essentials between Chioccioli, Hampsten, Breukink Zimmerman and Bernard. Delgado is putting himself in a position to be a contender for the stage and Van Der Velde remains up the road in a very heroic determined effort.

The gap on Breukink is opening as Hampsten applies steady pressure. Chioccioli and Zimmerman start to suffer and Zimmerman is sliding back. From the look on Chioccioli&rsquos face it won&rsquot be long before he&rsquos dropped too.

Andy is off the front and the race like the weather has disintegrated behind him. Breukink looks the strongest of the chasers and has bridged to the front of the chase which is still losing time on Hampsten. Delgado is visibly suffering as is Chioccioli. The sleet has turned to snow and a white layer is forming on both the road and the riders. The snow is coming down in big Christmas like snowy clumps. The descent will be into a &ldquohowling&rdquo headwind and will be nasty There will a flat section at the top of the climb, 3 km of paved road then single lane dirt with steep sketchy twisty cold wet downhill. The real threat is hypothermia for all the riders.

Hampsten has dropped everyone and is alone. There is snow in his hair and he looks to be barely staying warm. Yoho and Pangin are coming into view and Andy is tracking down Van Der Velde for the stage win. Van Der Velde in his short sleeves looks completely out of place in this weather.

Van Der Velde is out of the saddle and has amazingly stayed ahead of Hampsten. This is the ride of the day so far and what is even more amazing and scary is that he is about to start this descent in short sleeves. Race radios just reported race officials cars blocked in with all the snow and chaos nearing the top. Behind are all the team cars. This is starting to get crazy and the riders will have to navigate through the snow and all of the race caravan. The temperature at the top is -4 C (25 F).

Van Der Velde has stopped at his team car and is being handed a plastic rain jacket and a cotton race cap. He is literally freaking out and yelling in disbelief. Hampsten is coming up through the cars and will be at the top soon. At 2 km Hampsten has takes his cold weather gear from Ochowitz who has been at the summit for a while. With the exception of 7-Eleven none of the teams seem prepared for what is happening. 7-Eleven have cold weather bags and hot drinks for their team and it is proving wise. Hampsten takes his gear and immediately starts to struggle. He just brushed a big clump of snow out of his hair and is slowing and zig zagging in an agonizing attempt to put on his rain jacket. He&rsquos all over the place. At this point he should just stop put a foot down then start again. Literally the weather is affecting not just physical strength but mental reasoning. In any other conditions this would seem comical. Breukink who has separated himself from the chase group is coming up behind Hampsten who is still struggling with his gear. He has made up 43 seconds and will lead Hampsten over the top as they start the 15 km descent into Bormio.

Over The Top
Van Der Velde is starting down the Gavia but the look of terror on his face is palpable. Amazing&hellip He has turned around and is riding back to the top! Breukink and Hampsten pass him on their way down and he&rsquos in complete despair. He looks to be riding back to his team car.

The stage is now between Andy Hampsten and Eric Breukink, who has slowed and Andy comes past in what appears an attempt more to keep his legs spinning rather than take the lead. Behind the carnage has started. Riders approaching the summit face sheer terror at the thought of descending 25 km into what has now turned to into a full blizzard. Riders are making their way through the maze of cars, team support and fans. Most are literally unable to function and are stopping for any help with jackets and any warm gear that is available. Riders are off their bikes. It&rsquos not just desperation, it&rsquos primordial. Grown men who can&rsquot speak are desperately looking for any help available. Some are getting in cars with spectators with hot drinks and warm back seats. There are no lead cars and there is no group any more. Some riders are stoically putting on plastic rain jackets, climbing back on their bikes and riding into misery and what will surely become cycling immortality.

Chioccioli is several minutes back and has found a very unprepared Del Tongo team car at the top. He will have to descend in long sleeves and a head band. Panasonic is in the same predicament and Breukink is sent down the Gavia with no jacket or hat. Jean-Francois Bernard is getting warm gear, Oakleys and support at his team car and Delgado is stopping for gear too. The impetus to race has been replaced by the need to survive. Chioccioli is visibly suffering and will lose a lot of time if he cannot physically survive this.

So far we have Breukink and Hampsten together on the descent followed individually by Chioccioli, Roberto Tomasini (Fanini-Seven Up), Flavio Guipponi, Marco Giovannetti, Urs Zimmerman, Peter Winnen (Panasonic), Sergio Finazzi and Pedro Delgado.

More of the 7-Eleven team are reaching the team cars and are getting their gear. There is such a stark difference in the support and gear being given by other teams. Some teams have a few extra jerseys or gloves and some riders are still in short sleeves. Ron Kiefel is taking several minutes to get his jacket on and take some hot drinks. Other riders seem on the verge of collapse and can barely speak. Del Tongo are very unprepared are disintegrating as a team. It looks like Hampsten and 7-Eleven are going to out smart and out tough the Italian team.

Breukink is in arm warmers and shoe covers on the descent and he is suffering but staying near Andy. The two just passed a Carrera mechanic walking down the middle of the road with a pair of race wheels. He must have thought the race was canceled. The look of disbelief on his face is understandable since there are no lead cars or motorcycle.

Hampsten and Breukink are leading the Giro in a blizzard with no one around them. Snow and ice are building on them and Andy&rsquos gears have frozen in the 53×14. Both are braking and pedaling at the same time and shaking uncontrollably. Visibility is 20 to 30 yards on this narrow twisty road. Both are making their own way down and seem to be lost in suffering.

Hampsten just looked at his legs. They are bright red and his shins have ice on them. I don&rsquot think he will look again. 3 km before Santa Catarina and the snow turns to sleet. It does not feel warmer. Breukink is close behind on these turns but is continuing to take it slow. At the village Santa Catarina the final 13 km of road is paved two lanes at 8% grade. The strait downhill may change things. Both riders still look dazed and there is no way to imagine their thoughts. Both riders have continued pedalling which has kept their legs from seizing.

To Bormio
Breukink is coming up behind Hampsten at 8 km and passes Hampsten. Hampsten still in his rain jacket is slower on the strait sections. I don&rsquot think he&rsquos going to take his jacket off. Breukink looks good now although he must be suffering desperately. His team car has come from behind and team manager Peter Post is yelling and cussing to urge him on. Hampsten tried to jump on his wheel as he passed but could not hold. Mike Neel in the 7-Eleven car is now behind Hampsten who is about seven seconds back and this gap looks like it will hold. The last 2 km turns right, left, then right onto an uphill strait finish. Breukink does not look like he is in a mood for anything but finishing and is out of the saddle as he finishes. Breukink raises his hands in salute to this amazing stage, but Hampsten is within sight and finishes seven seconds back Hampsten will move into the leaders jersey as no one else is in sight. Race radios had Chioccioli at 2:20 behind at the top, but he was suffering badly in the cold and at last report was nearly 5 minutes back.

Both Breukink and Hampsten have collapsed at their team cars and are being rapped in as many warm clothes as available. Hampsten seemed delirious and was swinging his elbows back at team doctor Max Testa as he tried to put a jacket on him. The next rider in view is surprisingly Stefano Tomassini (Fanini 7-Up) who has come out of nowhere to finish at 4:39 with Giupponi and Giovannetti at 4:55 and 4:58. Zimmerman and Chioccioli are next at 5:05 and 5:08. Chioccioli is totally exhausted and can barely function. Delgado has lost time and will have to wait for the Tour de France next month to try for a second grand tour victory(He won the Tour of Spain in &rsquo85).

The race behind is all over the mountain. Riders are in panic from the cold and are stopping on the side of the road. Bob Roll was seen running up the road in a desperate attempt to get warm. Andy&rsquos words at the start of the day have come true. Others are stopping to get in cars with spectators just to sit in a warm place. Ron Keifel passed Czeslaw Lang (Del Tongo) who in short sleeves was descending at 2 mph.

Andy has been told he has the race lead and has both laughed and cried. He and Breukink have both made their podium appearances and are providing interviews but it is obvious they could not begin to explain what just happened on Gavia. Andy just put on his first maglia rosa. The pain he went through seems to be fading as his smile is wide and bright.

Riders are crossing the finish and are collapsing in their team support&rsquos arms and are making pitiful sounds of pain and complete emotional exhaustion. Bob Roll who is known for his tough riding is in complete collapse and is being revived by spectators who are bouncing him in a hug that seems very misguided.

Time cut offs have been suspended and everyone who finishes today will start tomorrow. Everyone has much recovery before the start tomorrow and the forecast is not much better for the next two days. Visentini and Saronni have lost 20 minutes on the day and Van Der Velde has finally appeared at 43 minutes back.

Everyone today has become cycling legend. Everyone will have their own story of what will forever be a fraternity of riders who survived Gavia 1988.


Common Loons spend a lot of their time working shallow waters for fish: swimming slowly and sticking their heads into the water to look for fish, then diving suddenly after their quarry with a quick plip! that hardly leaves a ripple on the water’s surface. Loons do all their feeding during the day, when they can best see their prey. At times, loons can be seen sticking one foot up out of the water and waggling it—this may be a means of cooling off, as scientists have observed loons waggling their feet more often on sunny, midsummer days. Loons also perform a territorial display of lifting their body upright and flapping their wings vigorously. Canoeists who get too close to a loon may witness this display, along with a defensive tremolo call as the loon swims away. Loons also tremolo when they fly from lake to lake or in circles above a lake, their necks sticking straight out and feet trailing behind them. They can be very vocally active with nocturnal choruses. After sundown, many North Woods lakes reverberate with the echoes of loon wails and yodels and tremolos (which writer John McPhee called “the laugh of the deeply insane”). In spring, loon mates arrive back on their lake separately. Loons are monogamous, and pair bonds typically last about 5 years. If one year one of the mates doesn’t return, the other will quickly pair up with another mate. The male defines his territory through yodeling. Courtship consists of swimming in circles and synchronous dives. If nesting is successful, loon chicks can be seen going for a ride around the lake on a parent’s back.Back to top

During a snowy stage of the '88 Giro, Andy Hampsten rode into history

Andy Hampsten pushes on ahead of Franco Chioccioli, moments before his famous attack at the base of the Gavia climb.

Darcy Kiefel/Courtesy of Andy Hampsten

We interrupt our regularly scheduled programming -- NBA and NHL playoffs, baseball in full swing -- to celebrate one of the coolest performances in the history of cycling. Literally.

The Giro d&aposItalia, one of cycling&aposs three grand (three-week) tours, is currently unspooling across Italy. This 96th version of the Giro marks the 25th anniversary of one of the most dramatic upsets in cycling history, a smart, insanely courageous ride by a talented climber from . the plains of North Dakota. Before he won the 1988 Giro, Andy Hampsten had plenty of rough days racing the amateur circuit in Italy.

He and his fellow Americans, many of whom would become his 7-Eleven teammates, often crashed in the bunks on the third floor of a working class joint called the Bar Augusto, outside the ancient walls of Bergamo, in northern Italy.

Augusto, who ran the place, was mad for cycling. Framed jerseys hung from the walls of his bar, including a maglia rosa -- the pink jersey sported by the Giro&aposs race leader -- once worn by the legendary Fausto Coppi. After long and often discouraging days in the saddle, Hampsten and the Yanks would stare at those jerseys, and reflect on the vast gap between them and I Grandi -- The Greats.

Behind the bar, chained in the driveway, skulked a sullen guard dog. "If guys were having a really bad day," Hampsten recalls, "they would say they were &aposas miserable as Augusto&aposs dog.&apos"

The Giro offers up large helpings of such misery. "I despise it in some ways," defending Tour de France champion Bradley Wiggins told reporters on the eve of this year&aposs race. "But there is an attraction . " With its obscene gradients -- riders wince at the mention of the Stelvio, the Mortirolo, the Colle del Finestre -- and the sometimes ridiculously long transfers between stages, the Giro often seems more sadistic than the terrible beauty that is Le Tour.

Yet Wiggins and other cycling purists cannot stay away. Like the haunting portrait of Kramer in the Seinfeld episode "The Letter" ("He is a loathsome, offensive brute, yet I can&apost look away"), the Giro remains oddly irresistible. They appreciate the visuals and vibe of the event -- more beautiful than the Tour, yet less full of itself -- and the passion of the tifosi, the Italian cycling fans whose knowledge and reverence for this sport is unmatched in other countries.

Which explains why Hampsten is better known in Italy than he is in North Dakota.

Should Wiggins win -- he lurked in sixth place after five stages -- he&aposll be the first Briton to win the Giro. This will happen a quarter century after Hampsten became the first American to win the same race. It&aposs not quite accurate to say that his feat has been largely forgotten in this country, because that would imply that that people knew about it in the first place.

Plenty of mainstream American sports fans can only name a single cyclist. As it happens, Lance Armstrong and Hampsten were Motorola teammates in the mid-&apos90s, Armstrong in the dawn of his career, Hampsten in the twilight of his. The rising tide of EPO was forcing riders to make an excruciating decision. Hampsten retired, at the relatively early age of 34, rather than dope. Armstrong took a different path.

While the sordid revelations in USADA&aposs Reasoned Decision diminished Armstrong, stripping the luster from his feats, it had the opposite effect on Hampsten, who left the sport he loved rather than cheat to stay in it. The more we learn about what was going on in those days, the more heroic he looks.

Two elements in particular made Hampsten&aposs Giro victory especially epic. He rode for a pioneering 7-Eleven team that had only been racing in Europe since &apos85. The hamburgervreters (hamburger eaters), as some Euros called them, had not been warmly welcomed. American riders were considered greenhorns, and reflexively blamed for crashes, whether they were at fault or not. The Yanks raised eyebrows by bringing a female soigneur -- a woman! -- and stepped on toes in a score of other, minor ways. That willingness to break with Euro cycling tradition helped Hampsten win.

He took the lead on a day so historic that it has two nicknames. Stage 14 of the &apos88 Giro took riders over the legendary Gavia, a long, wickedly steep and partially unpaved mountain whose upper reaches, according to local lore, were prowled by wolves. The peloton arrived at the base of the Gavia just as it was eclipsed by a late-spring blizzard. Hampsten&aposs daring attack in the snow remains one of the most dramatic days of riding in the annals of the sport. The tifosi still refer to it as "Il Giorno Della Neve" -- The Day of Snow. It&aposs also known as "The Day the Big Men Cried."

By 1988 it had been nearly two decades since the race had traversed the Passo di Gavia. To increase the chances of Italian riders like Francesco Moser and Beppe Saronni, race officials had avoided the storied passes made famous by Coppi and Gino Bartoli.

With Moser not contesting the &apos88 Giro, that unofficial policy came to an end. As if to compensate, recalls Bob Roll, a member of Hampsten&aposs 7-Eleven team, "Those sons of bitches put every mountain they could find in the race that year." Including the Gavia.

On the eve of the race Hampsten was approached by Gianni Motta, a former Giro winner who&aposd befriended the Americans. This mountainous edition of the race, Motta told his young friend, was custom made for him. Specifically, Motta went on, there was a climb the other riders and directors were underestimating. He urged Hampsten to attack on the 14th stage, on the Gavia.

When Hampsten thanked him politely, Motta bore in, "Hey, I&aposm not bulls----ing you. These guys" -- other directors, other riders -- "think it&aposs just another climb."

Team Slurpee, as the 7-Eleven team was nicknamed, knew the Gavia was not just another climb. They positioned team doctor Max Testa, whose family had rented a ski house in Bormio, on the far side of the Gavia, where Stage 14 would finish. Another 7-Eleven rider, Davis Phinney, wrote in his book The Happiness of Pursuit (co-authored with this reporter):

"For years, Max had been wearing us out with talk of this obscene climb, this glorified goat track, with its ominous headstones -- memorials to loved ones who left the road, and this earth, in that order. He spoke of the backside of the mountain, a perpetually chilled valley seldom penetrated by the sun. Max was warning us to bundle up for the descent side of the Gavia even before we got the weather report for June 5, 1988.

Hampsten wasn&apost scared of a little snow, having grown up in North Dakota, then moving to Boulder, Col. In 1985, at the age of 22, he was riding for a domestic team called Levi&aposs/Raleigh, when Team 7-Eleven cofounder Jim Ochowicz made him an offer. The team had wrangled an invitation to the &apos85 Giro, and "Och" needed a climber for the race, so he signed Hampsten to a one-month contract. His first pro race in Europe would be the Giro d&aposItalia.

It was the equivalent of making the jump from Double-A ball to the Majors, then debuting in the NLCS. During a mountain stage a week into the race, he was thrilled to find himself hanging with the lead group . until the final climb, when he lost 15 minutes. As Hampsten recalls, "I spent a lot of the rest of the Giro wondering, &aposWill I be good enough to be a pro racer?&apos"

He would be, as it turned out. He needed to be patient, and ride himself into better shape. Stage 20 was short: a 40-kilometer drag race through the castle-studded Aosta valley, followed by a sharp left turn and an 18-kilometer climb to a peak called Gran Paradiso. Because the stage was so similar to a time trial, Hampsten showed up at the start line rocking a one-piece skinsuit, slightly more aerodynamic than his regular kit. The new guy&aposs unitard provoked some snickering from the Europeans.

No one laughed when Hampsten launched a vicious attack a kilometer into the climb his rivals were too busy gasping for breath. At the base of the mountain, a Spanish rider had shot ahead. As he was overtaken, the peloton relaxed ever so slightly. Hampsten chose that moment to strike, floating away from the best climbers in the world. The rookie won the stage by nearly a minute. After that, no one gave him grief about his skinsuit.

By the time he approached the base of the Gavia three years later, Hampsten had lost the element of surprise. He&aposd earned a reputation as one of the elite climbers in the sport. Following his stunning debut at the &apos85 Giro, he&aposd signed with Greg LeMond&aposs team, La Vie Claire, which was one of the top outfits in the world. He won the rugged, weeklong Tour of Switzerland in &apos86 and &apos87 -- with La Vie Claire and 7-Eleven, respectively.

Now, in the &apos88 Giro, he was once again riding into top form. Two days before the Gavia, he&aposd dropped a select group of climbers as if he were brushing lint off his lapel, then soloed to a mountaintop stage win in Selvino.

"I was excited for the Gavia stage," he recalls, "which is why I was pretty freaked out when it was snowing that morning."

The race started that day in the village of Chiesa Val Malenco, at an elevation of just over 3,000 feet. The Gavia tops out at 8,600. That morning, a Giro official informed team directors that it was snowing on the mountain, but that the roads were clear. Conditions were not icy. It was cold, but not dangerous, he said. The race was on.

At the direction of Ochowicz and team director Mike Neel, 7-Eleven riders fanned out around the village, buying warm clothes, which would be distributed to the riders a kilometer from the summit. Those garments were to keep them, if not warm, at least sentient, on what promised to be the most agonizing descent of their lives.

Not every team went to such lengths. It was cycling. It was the Giro. You were supposed to suffer. The European tradition of bike racing embraced the code of the "hard man." The Americans weren&apost afraid to suffer. But they weren&apost steeped so deeply in that macho ethic. So they prepared for the descent. It was one thing to be a hard man. It was another to be frozen stiff.

At Neel&aposs insistence, riders also covered themselves in lanolin, or wool grease, a moisture-repelling unguent favored by channel swimmers. Hampsten rode the entire 120 kilometers in a pair of cumbersome, neoprene diving gloves. It didn&apost matter how many extra clothes he had if his fingers froze, and he couldn&apost put them on.

There was loud grumbling as riders mustered for the start in a pelting rain. Many wanted the stage to be shortened, or canceled. As the peloton pressed on through the Valtellina Valley, en route to the Gavia, several riders asked Hampsten, hopefully, "You&aposre not going to attack today, are you?"

When those guys drifted back, Hampsten directed his teammates to ride faster.

After passing through the little town of Ponte de Legno, the peloton banked left, over an old, wooden bridge, and the grade kicked up to three or four percent. Soon after, the rain turned to snow.

Back in the hotel, Testa had told the team about a spot where the well-maintained, two-lane road would jog left, through a stand of old pines. The road would narrow to a single lane, then turn to dirt, Testa had told them. "There will be a sign that says &aposNarrow Road, 16 percent.&apos"

And that&aposs where Hampsten lit his fuse, to the surprise of no one. "All my competitors were watching me," he says. "They knew I was going to attack." He had little choice, in that moment, than to "take the big stick and swing it."

He still got away. At that point, the Gavia is so steep and the switchbacks are so tight, piling up on one another, that Hampsten was able to peer down, as if looking down a stairwell, to take the measure of his rivals, who were in disarray. He&aposd put a serious hurt on them.

Ahead of him was a Dutchman named Johan van der Velde, who&aposd launched an earlier kamikaze attack, hurling himself into the blizzard. Van der Velde&aposs problem was that the storm was coming from the north, meaning the weather would be markedly worse on the descent.

By this time the snow had begun to accumulate on the road. Running his hand over his hair at one point, Hampsten recalls, he felt a big snowball roll down his back. Team cars were spinning out and zigzagging, forcing riders to steer a course around them.

At the top, Hampsten donned a plastic rain jacket, a neck gaiter and balaclava hat. Bormio was 25 kilometers away. From the number on the little chalkboard -- the time gap displayed to him by the man on the motorcycle -- he knew he&aposd opened up a substantial gap on his main rivals. "And I knew the descent would be everything."

"Twenty-five kilometers," Roll told himself. "I can do anything for 25 kilometers. But after 500 meters I was a block of ice." A knifing crosswind blew snow nearly horizontal. Navigating the switchbacks with compromised vision and brakes proved not just challenging but dangerous, with one missed turn sending riders off steep pitches. Phinney frequently resorted to pulling his foot out of the pedal and slowing himself "Fred Flintstone-style."

Around him was misery on a scale rarely seen even in this suffering-intensive sport. Shivering, unable to continue, Van der Velde had made it two clicks down the mountain before he had to be helped to a team car, where he sat sipping cognac and hot tea. He lost 47 minutes to the leaders. Aussie rider Allan Peiper borrowed a motorcycle jacket from a team trainer for the descent. He later recounted passing "riders who were crying, and some who were walking in ones and twos, the snow blinding their vision and cold sapping their courage." For his part, Peiper found courage in the two shots of cognac offered him by another trainer.

Among those brought low was Visentini, who&aposd won the &apos86 Giro but lost the race on this foul day. "Visentini and Saronni were reduced to tears of pain," wrote John Wilcockson of VeloNews, who was on the mountain that day. "We watched Visentini coasting downhill like a rag doll at a quarter the speed he would normally descend."

Italy&aposs Franco Chioccioli had started the day in pink, nursing a half-minute lead over Visentini and a 78-second advantage over Hampsten. Chioccioli did not do well in the cold. "He looked like he was crying for his mother," recalls Roll. "I rode seven grand tours, and after awhile they start to run together a little. But I remember every mile of that stage."

"A lot of the Italian riders had fans and family on the side of the road, so they got into cars to warm up. We didn&apost know anybody," he said of the 7-Eleven crew. "We just kept soldiering through."

Twelve kilometers down from the summit, at the village of Santa Caterina, the snow turned to rain. "That means it&aposs at least 32 degrees," Hampsten told himself. "You&aposre really warming up now!"

In fact he was suffering deeply, as was every rider on the mountain that day. "It was by far the farthest my mind has ever pushed my body."

Seven kilometers from the finish he was overtaken by Eric Breukink, a Dutch rider who crossed the line seven seconds ahead of him. For his part, Hampsten rode into the maglia rosa. Chioccioli -- who argues to this day that the stage should&aposve been cancelled -- lost more than six minutes to Hampsten. Visentini ceded a half-hour.

Weeping, shivering riders had to be prised from their bikes at the finish line. Stalactites of ice hung like tusks from the mustache of Polish rider Lech Piasecki. Bob Roll finished the stage in 24th place but in bad shape. He was barely coherent, his heart rate a dangerously low 27 beats per minute. Deeply concerned, Testa stashed him in the only warm quarters near the finish line -- the room where the podium girls were primping before the awards ceremony.

Testa left Roll stretched out on the floor with a blanket over him. Upon his return, he found the gap-toothed rider sitting up, sipping his tenth espresso, and chatting up the young ladies. "He came around quite nicely," recalls the doctor.

The next day, the local paper ran a front page photo of Hampsten and Breukink, each with an arm on the other&aposs shoulder, under the headline, "I Lupi del Gavia" -- The Wolves of the Gavia.

After donning the jersey and posing with Breukink and submitting to interviews, Hampsten sat alone in a team car, heaters blasting, and wept.

There are more stories to be written about the week of racing that remained, but let it suffice to say that Hampsten hung on, despite the immense pressure he felt despite losing the jersey on the road in Stage 19. On a day featuring a trio of Dolomites, 7-Eleven allowed Urs Zimmerman to escape. The dangerous Swiss rider built a gap of seven minutes before Hampsten and the Slurpee quartet of Roll, Raul Alcala, Jeff Pierce and Ron Kiefel buried themselves for 100 kilometers, limiting the damage to three minutes. Hampsten kept the jersey.

He kept it through the final stage, a time trial in Vittorio Veneto. After holding the trophy aloft, Hampsten handed it to a rotund plutocrat named Ernesto Dell&aposOglio, owner of Hoonved, a manufacturer of industrial washing machines. Hoonved was 7-Eleven&aposs European sponsor. A bighearted, sentimental fellow, Dell&aposOglio had been sponsoring cycling teams for decades, but never gotten so much as a sniff of the Giro trophy which, now that it was in his grasp, he could not bring himself to release.

"He&aposs in all the pictures," says Roll, "because he wouldn&apost let go of the trophy."

The team dispersed the next day. In the Tour de France two years later, Hampsten attacked his fellow escapees on the slopes of the Alpe d&aposHuez, and stayed away. He won that stage, and finished fourth in that Tour.

But he never won another grand tour, and retired from cycling in 1996, at the age of 34.

"My due date was up," he says. But that&aposs not exactly true. At 34 he was still lean and fit, and wily as ever, but he hadn&apost won an important race in at least two years. The riders around him had changed EPO had turned average Joes into superheroes. Hampsten rode for a Spanish team called Banesto in &apos95, and recalls a screaming match he had with an assistant director incensed by the lack of "professionalism" Hampsten was exhibiting by refusing to dope. The team official urged him to take "just a little something," that he might "reclaim his rightful place in the peloton."

Who knows how many victories went unclaimed? Did he have regrets?

"I really don&apost," he says. "Psychologically, [doping] would have come at such a cost. It would&aposve taken such a toll on me. I had a good career. It was enough."

Background & Summary

The Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) made a commitment in 2002 to develop an adequate knowledge base to address the problem of invasive alien species, including encouraging research on ‘the history and ecology of invasion (origin, pathways and time-period)’ 1 . Despite this, there continues to be an absence of high-quality, spatially and temporally explicit data available on the distributions of alien species. An evaluation of progress towards the CBD’s 2010 targets 2 highlighted the need for datasets with broader taxonomic and geographic coverage than those that currently exist 3 . Broad taxonomic coverage is necessary because taxa differ in their likelihood of becoming invasive when introduced, and some will pose greater risks to the new environment or entail greater economic costs to eradicate than others. Broad geographic coverage is needed as currently the majority of data on alien species is skewed towards developed nations 4 , and it is difficult to distinguish whether this imbalance is due to a higher incidence of introductions in these regions or just a greater recording effort. In the absence of broad coverage, any pattern apparent in the analysis of a dataset is inclined to reflect the pattern in recording effort instead of the true global picture.

In order to address this data gap and begin to identify patterns and processes of alien invasions, a novel, spatially referenced, global data set on the historical introductions and alien distributions of a complete taxonomic group is required. By allowing researchers to understand how current patterns in the distribution and richness of alien species developed over time and space, such a dataset would potentially enable the consequences of future changes in the drivers of those patterns would impact upon the likelihood of future invasions. Here we present what is, to our knowledge, the largest and most complete global database on alien introductions and distributions for a significant taxonomic group, birds. Birds provide an excellent focal taxon for studies of invasion biology 5,6 . The practise of introducing birds is a global phenomenon, and the wide range of motivations for humans to transport bird species outside of their native ranges has led to a diverse selection of bird species being introduced 5 . In addition, birds are taxonomically well-described, and have had their native distributions mapped at the global scale 7 .

This database on alien bird species distributions derives from both published and unpublished sources, including atlases, country species lists, peer-reviewed articles, websites and via correspondence with in-country experts. The underlying data consist of individual records, each concerning a specific alien bird species introduced to a specific location, and where possible with an associated distribution map. The database forms the core of the GAVIA (Global AVian Invasions Atlas) project.

Between July 2010 and March 2014, 27,723 alien bird records were collated, representing 971 species, introduced to 230 countries and administrative areas across all eight biogeographical realms (see section on Biogeographic Coverage), spanning the period 6000 BCE—AD 2014. Raw data comprises taxonomic (species-level), spatial (geographic location, realm, land type) and temporal (dates of introduction and spread) components, as well as details relating to the introduction event (how and why the species was introduced, whether or not it is established).

The number and diversity of the records in GAVIA means that this database should provide a representative portrayal of the global distribution of alien bird species. Indeed, GAVIA doubles the number of bird species known to have been introduced, and also doubles the number known to have established viable populations since Long 8 , the last attempt at a comprehensive catalogue of alien birds 9 . The coverage of the GAVIA database, both geographically (230 countries), taxonomically (

10% of all bird species) and temporally (anecdotal records from

8,000 years ago, detailed distribution records spanning the last 1,500 years), illustrates the extent of alien bird introductions and spread, and the breadth of available information relating to them. GAVIA represents the first time these data have been collated and compiled into one database, and distribution maps have been created. It is therefore arguably the most comprehensive resource on the global distribution of alien species in any major taxon.

The data contained within GAVIA constitute a large evidence base for the analysis of spatial and temporal patterns in alien bird distributions, and will be an important resource for scientists interested in understanding the invasion process. Multiple publications have already arisen from these data 6,9–13 , however there are still many aspects yet to be explored. Overlaying the GAVIA data with datasets of environmental variables or species attributes provides a wealth of additional analytical possibilities, and should significantly increase the breadth of our understanding of invasions as a result. GAVIA could also help conservation bodies and policy makers to understand where and why invasions are continuing to occur, especially if linked into new initiatives to understand bird distributions such as ebird, and so ultimately contribute to efforts to stem the process and ameliorate its impacts.

The Gavia celebrates 60 years as Giro d’Italia legend

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Imerio Massignan on the Gavia Pass in the 1960 Giro d'Italia. Photo: Imerio Massignan family

It’s hard to imagine the Giro d’Italia without the mythic Gavia Pass. And today, the Gavia celebrates its 60th birthday since it was first included in the 1960 Giro d’Italia. At the time, no one could predict that the 17-km-long climb with an 8 percent average gradient would enter the annals of sport. Sure, at 2,618-meter-altitude, its summit is high by Alpine standards. And the rugged gravel road that paved the way to the summit only rendered it more difficult. But there were a lot of dirt roads in the Alps back in the day. Nevertheless, legendary Giro d’Italia director Vincenzo Torriani was looking for a novel climb. And when he discovered the pass during an aerial recon, he thought there was real potential.

And almost as soon as stage 20 of the 1960 Giro attacked the Gavia, it became a climb of legend. As the penultimate stage of the Giro that year, it offered the final opportunity for anyone to shake Frenchman Jacques Anquetil out of the pink leader’s jersey. And 23-year-old Italian Imerio Massignan was set on trying. Massignan, a member of the distinctive Legnano team, attacked early and led the leaders over the climb. And with a two-minute gap, he was shaking up standings.

“It was an unforgettable day!” Massignan remembers. “At the time, few of us knew anything about the Gavia, and we didn’t do any recon beforehand. Suddenly, I found myself in front of a mule track: there were gravel and stones on all sides, six-meter-high snow walls on one side and the cliff on the other”.

Massignan still remembers skirting along the rugged dirt road. He spotted a military vehicle that had crashed over the edge, attesting to the treacherous nature of the road. But Massignan was feeling like Fausto Coppi as he crested the summit and attacked the descent with dreams of capturing the Magia Rosa.

His own dreams suddenly turned to nightmares, however, as he flatted no less than three times before the finish into Bormio. Caught by legendary Luxembourg rider Charly Gaul, Massignan could only watch in tears as Gaul cruised across the line, as his third flat in the final 300 meters of the stage prevented him from even contesting the stage sprint.

But to this day Massignan, who finished fourth in the 1960 race, is proud to have been the first Giro rider to have crested Gavia. “I was born in a time full of stars: Gaul, Anquetil, Bahamontes, Nencini and Van Looy, to name a few. It might be the reason why I didn’t win many races,” Massignan recalls. “However, nobody will ever take away my record as the first cyclist on the Gavia!”

Ironically the Giro has only included the Gavia on nine occasions, But it is seemingly always a day to remember. No day, however, was as unforgettable as stage 14 of the 1988 Giro d’Italia, when Dantesque blizzard conditions transformed the stage into a day of surreal horror. It would be a day when race leader Franco Chioccioli literally froze off of his bicycle. And of course, it was a day when Andy Hampsten raced into the pink jersey on his way to becoming the first American to win the famed race.

Andy Hampsten on the Gavia in 1988. Photo: file

At the start, the riders were still very much racing into the unknown. After all, it was the first time that the Giro had tackled the Gavia since its initial ascent in 1960. And
few understood just how bad it would get before the summit.

But Hampsten and his 7-Eleven team came prepared. Hampsten knew at what point the road turned into gravel, something that played into his hands. And his team, understanding the severity of the conditions that awaited the riders at the summit, went out shopping in an effort to buy up all of the extra caps and gloves they could find to protect the riders.

“I went to the local ski shop and bought winter gloves for everybody the night before. I bought as many gloves as I could. We gave them to the riders that morning when they started,” team manager Jim Ochowicz told VeloNews in a 2017 feature. “My plan was to drive up ahead of the race to the top of the Gavia and then hand out bottles of hot tea and hats and jackets. We took off early, and it took forever to get up there because there were several avalanches on the way up. We drove up and at halfway the road turned to dirt, and it was like ‘Whoa, how are these guys going to get up this?’”

It’s the team meeting and [Mike] Neel (i.e. sports director) talks us into putting lanolin on our entire bodies, not just our legs, remembers Hampsten “It’s like we were preparing to swim in the English Channel.”

Andy Hampsten in white-out blizzard conditions, ascending the Gavia Pass in the 1988 Giro d’Italia. Photo: Pontedilegno Tonale

Despite the team’s calculations, the conditions near the summit were worse than anyone could imagine. “The conditions were very dangerous, life-threatening,” remembers Norwegian team member Dag-Otto Lauritzen. “I didn’t know if I was braking. I had to look at the brakes to make sure my fingers were working because I had no feeling in them anymore.”

But while everyone suffered that day, Hampsten was on fire. Cresting the summit in third place, the American raced towards the finish in Bormio and into the lead of the Giro d’Italia.

Many criticized the race organization for not canceling the stage. After all, stages in the Giro had been canceled for much less. But it remains one of the most epic stages in the race’s history and it forever etched the Gavia into the annals of the race, as well as the sport of cycling.

Sure the Giro has climbed the Stelvio and the Tre Cime di Lavaredo on many more occasions, but the Gavia is no less than of an icon for cycling aficionados.

And for those looking to have their own memories on this mythic climb, you can celebrate the legend of the Gavia without cars on July 26 and August 30, from 8:30 to 12:30. What better way to wish a happy anniversary to such a historic climb!

7. Implementation Notes¶

The upload service SHOULD choose an appropriate timeout for the validity of the PUT URL. Since there is no reason for a client to wait between requesting the slot and starting the upload, relatively low timeout values of around 300s are RECOMMENDED.

To make HTTP Upload work in web clients (including those hosted on a different domain) the upload service SHOULD set appropriate CORS-Headers. The exact headers and values are out of scope of this document but may include: Access-Control-Allow-Origin, Access-Control-Allow-Methods and Access-Control-Allow-Headers. For HTTP upload services that use custom Authorization or Cookie request header the CORS-Header Access-Control-Allow-Credentials might also be of importance.

Example for loose CORS Header


Updates an issue with some special key combinations used in DaYi, Yi, and Array IMEs that might cause an application to stop working.

Updates an issue that displays a blank lock screen after a device wakes up from Hibernate.

Updates an issue that prevents you from opening a document that is on the Windows desktop and generates the error, “The directory name is invalid.”

Corrects historical daylight savings time (DST) information for the Palestinian Authority.

Updates an issue that fails to show Extract all on the shortcut menu when you right-click an online-only ZIP file.

Please choose the options from the selectors below.

Please note: Spoke kits now include 3 extra spokes per length.

Also, if you have a preference for the material of your nipples, please specify alloy or brass nipples in the comment for the order during the checkout process. Alloy nipples are roughly 30g lighter for a 20-24 spoke wheel.

If you would like to add a nipple pack - either as an add-on or just instead of the full spoke kit, we have recently added a low cost item here.

Spoke kits are available for complete wheelsets as sold and include the correct number of spokes for front and rear wheels as included on the original wheel. For example, if a wheel has 24 spokes, the spoke kit for that wheel will contain 24 spokes. Pro-Lite spokes use higher tension than most other brands, so please consult the spoke chart here. Spoke kit also includes nipples and washers according to the original build spec.

If you are unsure, take a clear pic of your wheel and contact us.

Here is a chart of models available and their order codes:

Wheel Name Order Code
Antero Carbon V1 27.5" Antero-Carbon-V1-275-(F)
Antero Carbon V2 27.5" Antero-Carbon-V2-275-(F)
Antero Carbon V1 29" Antero-Carbon-V1-29-(F)
Antero Carbon V2 29" Antero-Carbon-V1-29-(F)
Antero XC V1 26" Antero-XC-V1-26-(F)
Antero XC V2 26" Antero-XC-V2-26-(F)
Antero XC V1 27.5" Antero-XC-V1-275-(F)
Antero XC V2 27.5" Antero-XC-V2-275-(F)
Antero XC V1 29" Antero-XC-V1-29-(F)
Antero XC V2 29" Antero-XC-V2-29-(F)
Antero AM 26" Antero-AM-26-(F)
Antero AM 27.5" Antero-AM-275-(F)
Antero AM 26" Antero-AM-26-(F)
Avanzo XC 27.5" Avanzo-XC-275-(F)
Avanzo XC 29" Avanzo-XC-29-(F)
Avanzo AM 27.5" Avanzo-AM-275-(F)
Avanzo AM 29" Avanzo-AM-29-(F)
Bortola A21W (V1 and V2) Bortola-A21W-(F)
Bortola C28W (V1 and V2) Bortola-C28W-(F)
Bracciano C50T Bracciano-C50T-(F)
Bracciano Caliente Bracciano-Caliente-(F)
Bracciano A42 Bracciano-A42-(F)
Bracciano A42W Bracciano-A42W-(F)
Bracciano A27 (Silver Spokes) [DISCONTINUED] Bracciano-A27-(Si)-(F)
Bracciano A27 & A27W (Black Spokes) or Bracciano A27 2.0 Bracciano-A27-(Bl)-(F)
Bracciano 650C Bracciano-650C-(F)
Cicilia A21W Cicilia-A21W-(F)
Cicilia C28W Cicilia-C28W-(F)
Como DS Como-DS-(F)
Garda A42 Garda-A42-(F)
Garda DS (700C) Garda-DS-(700C)-(F)
Garda DS (650C) Garda-DS-(650C)-(F)
Gavia P55 MH (2-Cross only) 276mm * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-P55-MH-(2X)-(F)
Gavia C50T (2-Cross only) 276mm * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-C50T-(2X)-(F)
Gavia Caliente * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-Caliente-(F)
Gavia CA50 (2-Cross only) 276mm * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-CA50-(2X)-(F)
Gavia A21W * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-A21W-(F)
Gavia Volante (P22) * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-Volante-(P22)-(F)
Ignis XC 26" Ignis-XC-26-(F)
Ignis XC 27.5" Ignis-XC-275-(F)
Ignis XC 29" Ignis-XC-29-(F)
Ignis AM 26" Ignis-AM-26-(F)
Ignis AM 29" Ignis-AM-29-(F)
Ignis AM 27.5" Ignis-AM-275-(F)
Lignano C50T Lignano-C50T-(F)
Luciano Luciano-(F)
Merano A25W Merano-A25W-(F)
Merano A25W Gravity Merano-A25W-Gravity-(F)
Merano A30 (3.2mm) Merano-A30-(3.2mm)-(F)
Merano A30 SE (2.2mm) Merano-A30-SE-(2.2mm)-(F)
Paula (*SPECIAL* Money Saver Replacement pack available here) Paula-(F)
*NOTE for Disc Brake Type Wheels: Disc brakes place more stress on spokes than conventional rim braking. You may wish to purchase a front and rear spoke kit together for combined shipping and maximum longevity.
Revo A21W (ISO 6-Bolt) Revo-A21W-(ISO-6-Bolt)-(F)
Revo A21W (Center Lock) Revo-A21W-(CL)-(F)
Revo C28W (Center Lock) Revo-C28W-(CL)-(F)
Revo C50T (Center Lock) Revo-C50T-(CL)-(F)
Revo Caliente (Center Lock) Revo-Caliente-(CL)-(F)
Veleta 26" Veleta-26-(F)
Veleta 27.5" Veleta-275-(F)
Veleta 29" Veleta-29-(F)
Verona A25W Verona-A25W-(F)
Vicenza C50T Vicenza-C50T-(F)
Vicenza C90T Vicenza-C90T-(F)
Vicenza CA50 Vicenza-CA50-(F)
Vicenza CA90 Vicenza-CA90-(F)
Rosa A30 Rosa-A30-(F)
Rosa 650C for Kid’s Track Bike Rosa-650C-(F)

Wheel Name Order Code
Antero Carbon 27.5" Antero-Carbon-275-(R)
Antero Carbon 29" Antero-Carbon-29-(R)
Antero XC 26" Antero-XC-26-(R)
Antero XC 27.5" Antero-XC-275-(R)
Antero XC 29" Antero-XC-29-(R)
Antero AM 26" Antero-AM-26-(R)
Antero AM 27.5" Antero-AM-275-(R)
Antero AM 29" Antero-AM-29-(R)
Avanzo XC 27.5" Avanzo-XC-275-(R)
Avanzo XC 29" Avanzo-XC-29-(R)
Avanzo AM 29" Avanzo-AM-29-(R)
Avanzo AM 29" Avanzo-AM-29-(R)
Bortola A21W (V1 and V2) Bortola-A21W-(R)
Bortola C28W (V1 and V2) Bortola-C28W-(R)
Bracciano C50T Bracciano-C50T-(R)
Bracciano Caliente Bracciano-Caliente-(R)
Bracciano A42 Bracciano-A42-(R)
Bracciano A42W Bracciano-A42W-(R)
Bracciano A27 (Silver Spokes) [DISCONTINUED] Bracciano-A27-(Si)-(R)
Bracciano A27 & A27W (Black Spokes) or Bracciano A27 2.0 Bracciano-A27-(Bl)-(R)
Bracciano 650C Bracciano-650C-(R)
Cicilia A21W Cicilia-A21W-(R)
Cicilia C28W Cicilia-C28W-(R)
Como DS Como-DS-(R)
Garda A42 Garda-A42-(R)
Garda DS (700C/Duplex spoke pattern) Garda-DS-(700C)-(R)
Garda (700C/Normal lacing) (special order item, if out of stock, please contact us directly) Garda-(700C/Non-DS)-(R)
Garda DS (650C) Garda-DS-(650C)-(R)
Gavia P55 MH (2-Cross) 264/267mm (note that we currently recommend 3-Cross lacing for all Gavia models) * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-P55-MH-(2X)-(R)
Gavia P55 MH (3-Cross) 282/285mm * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-P55-MH-(3X)-(R)
Gavia C50T (3-Cross - current model) 282/285mm * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-C50T-(3X)-(R)
Gavia C50T (2-Cross - older model) 264/267mm (note that we currently recommend 3-Cross lacing for all Gavia models and stock is no longer available for this model) Gavia-C50T-(2X)-(R)
Gavia Caliente * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-Caliente-(R)
Gavia CA50 (3-Cross - current model) 282/285mm * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-CA50-(3X)-(R)
Gavia CA50 (2-Cross - older model - pic) 264/267mm (note that we currently recommend 3-Cross lacing for all Gavia models and stock is no longer available for this model) Gavia-CA50-(2X)-(R)
Gavia A21W (3-Cross - current model) * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-A21W-(R)
Gavia Volante (P22) (3-Cross - current model) * Note: Gavia spokes are no longer being manufactured. Availability may be limited. Gavia-Volante-(P22)-(R)
Ignis XC 26" Ignis-XC-26-(R)
Ignis XC 27.5" Ignis-XC-275-(R)
Ignis XC 29" Ignis-XC-29-(R)
Ignis AM 26" Ignis-AM-26-(R)
Ignis AM 29" Ignis-AM-29-(R)
Ignis AM 27.5" Ignis-AM-275-(R)
Lignano C50T Lignano-C50T-(R)
Luciano Luciano-(R)
Merano A25W Merano-A25W-(R)
Merano A25W Gravity Merano-A25W-Gravity-(R)
Merano A30 (3.2mm) Merano-A30-(3.2mm)-(R)
Merano A30 SE (2.2mm) Merano-A30-SE-(2.2mm)-(R)
Paula (*SPECIAL* Money Saver Replacement pack available here) Paula-(R)
*NOTE for Disc Brake Type Wheels: Disc brakes place more stress on spokes than conventional rim braking. You may wish to purchase a front and rear spoke kit together for combined shipping and maximum longevity.
Revo A21W (ISO 6-Bolt) Revo-A21W-(ISO-6-Bolt)-(R)
Revo A21W (Center Lock) Revo-A21W-(CL)-(R)
Revo C28W (Center Lock) Revo-C28W-(CL)-(R)
Revo C50T (Center Lock) Revo-C50T-(CL)-(R)
Revo Caliente (Center Lock) Revo-Caliente-(CL)-(R)
Veleta 26" Veleta-26-(R)
Veleta 27.5" Veleta-275-(R)
Veleta 29" Veleta-29-(R)
Verona A25W Verona-A25W-(R)
Vicenza C50T Vicenza-C50T-(R)
Vicenza CA50 Vicenza-CA50-(R)
Vicenza C90T Vicenza-C90T-(R)
Vicenza CA90 Vicenza-CA90-(R)
Rosa A30 Rosa-A30-(R)
Rosa 650C for Kid’s Track Bike Rosa-(650C)-(R)

* Please have the wheel serviced by a qualified technician. Damage caused by improper installation not covered by warranty.

**Shipping is calculated in 500g increments. Combined shipping may be available for this item. Items are shipped on Wednesday and Friday of each week from Taiwan. Shipping costs will be calculated during checkout. Duty and taxes are not included, as these are imposed by the destination country and may be payable by the recipient according to the Customs regulations in your home country. In many cases, the shipper will facilitate this for you and may charge a modest fee at the discretion of the branch in your country . To find out more, please contact your country's Customs and Border Services.

Watch the video: Stelvio e Gavia con Cesare Renzo e Roberto (July 2022).


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